LECTURES FOR FINAL: 2-4-09 Societies at Crossroads: China, the Ottomans, and Japan in the 19th Century Western Europe relatively marginal compared to Mediterranean, Asia, and other parts of Europe. Ottomans- impressive empire Later ?sick man of Europe? Internal challenges Similar external challenges from west 3 dimensions of European imperials political- military and political ambitions of European rivalries economic- other societies became parts f trade, investment, migration cultural- culture of modernity, commitment to scientific rationalism, progress and a better future, different roles for people in society, esp. women Asians and Africans resisted and incorporated ideas into their cultures FOCUS QUESTIONS Internal and external challenges CHINA 1793 Letter from Chinese Emperor Quanlong to King Gerge III of England -have all things in great abundance and do not need to import manufactures of outside barbarians Qing Dynasty- victim of own success Huge pop growth, nutrients from European foods (quadrupled in under 200 years) smaller farms, unemployment, poverty, misery, starvation democratic state central to earlier stability, didn?t grow in relation to pop growth less effective with collecting taxes and providing basic social welfare controlling floods, public security, bandits harsh treatment of peasants bandit gangs were dangerous for countryside Numerous peasant rebellions Hong Xiuquan and the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) Rebel leaders rejected C, B, and Daosim Christianity (unique form), claimed to be younger brother of Jesus and est. heavenly kingdom of great peace Not to instill Chinese ordeal but make a revolutionary change End to foot binding, prostitution, opium Redistributions Of land Equality of men and women Men?s camps and women?s camps Industrial nation with railroads, Heath insurance, public education, newspapers Rapidly gained followers Local Wealthy landowners made armies (for or against) War devastated economy, 20-30 million deaths, bloodiest war in 19th c. Internal pressures= unfavorable footing with encounters to western powers Opium wars Opium from India- trade imbalances with China 1000 chests in 1773 and 23000 by 1832 Opium half of British imports into china British would be in a trade deficit without the Opium Opium challenges to Chinese authorities Illegal- smuggling More gov corruption- bribes to look the other way or assist with importation Drained silver out of China and more economic problems Opium addicts?all kinds of people (students, gov, workers, military) 1836 after extended debate over legalizing it, Emperor decided to crack down on it Police force, kicked traders out of China, seized and burned Opium British saw it as violation of property rights Wanted to show them proper way to do relations Ended with Chinese being forced to sign humiliating treaty Pay back for Opium destroyed Hong Kong to British control Restricted their ability to tax imports Opened up ports for foreign trade People could live outside jurisdiction of central gov. *greater access to China *influences from many countries, could build in it, trade, extract raw materials weak central states and domination by other imperial powers inhibited China from developing independent capitalists Chinese Responses and the Boxer Rebellion: Wanted to rejuvenate Qing dynasty with ?Self Strengthening? Careful borrowing from the west, foreign lang. schools, telegraph systems, few textile and steel factories, modified military Still problems, inhibited by fears of conservative land owners, own privileges threatened by modernization Navy in need of reform but instead the Empress built a marble decorative boat Industrial projects still dependent on foreigners for expertise on machines Many Chinese disillusions with idea of Self Strengthening Boxer Rebellion: led by militia groups Rejected western stuff Ottomans: 19th c., the ?Sick man of Europe? Balkans Military, religious treat to parts of Europe Problems: political, military, and economic factors 19th c.- sick men of Europe central state couldn?t collect taxes, problem Jannisarries were at one time very affective, but Ottoman armies didn?t keep up with technology of West Invasions chewed away at Ottoman territory Trade deficits (what caused them?) Some gained immunity from Ottoman law (why?) Modernization program in 18th c Tanzimat for ?Reorganization? in 19th c. and the ?Young Ottomans? not the same kind of pop. Explosion military among institutions to strengthen power western advisors, technical schools to train future officials postal service, new schools for primary/secondary education, railroads Ottoman leadership redefined legal status of diverse communities All people were citizen and equal before the law Christians could be appointed to high office Secular administration- secular schools competing with traditional Islamic educational inst. Questions of cultural identity Some outraged by reforms Ottomans put down conservative reactions Young Ottomans: programs of Islamic Modernism Not necessary to chose between _____________________ Constitution for empire in 1876 Limited sultans? authority Representative gov. ?liberty, equality, fraternity? (Modo from French revolution) *Short lived New Sultan initially accepted reforms But Russian army invaded Turkey Got rid of constitution, wanted more radical reformers Ottoman Sultan was a spokesman to speak for all of Islamic world Pan Islamic identity- different than what young Ottomans proposed JAPAN 1853- US Mathew Perry led war ships into Tokyo- demanded them to open up to foreign relations Japanese leaders instituted revolution from above Industrialized nation Joined imperialist club, own empire at expense of China Modernity not a uniquely European phenomenon Seemed Promising to other nations, but was ominous to other parts of Asia Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1850) Centuries of peace = bursts of economic growth and urban development 1750- most urbanized country in world Modern Tokyo- world?s largest city Jap. Societies remained divided into status groups Samarie- had to seek loans from merchants Peasants Artisans Merchants- had money but little official status Both resented position in society Failed to deal with famine in 1830s- undermined confidence in Government Peasants uprising, urban riots Clashes bt gov official and wealthy merchants *Central feature: policy of Sakoku- prohibited Japanese from leaving country and traders from entering (except those Dutch traders) agreed to set of humiliating treaties led to brief civil war 1868- young samurai from southern Japan gained control of country eliminated Shogun, power back to young emperor (15 y.o.): Meiji Advantages that Japan had No massive violence and mess that comes with it Of less interest to West than China (rep. for riches and huge market from huge pop) or Ottomans Japan had more breathing space for development Transformed much more thoroughly than Ottomans and Chinese Meiji Restoration Transform society drawing from the west *National unity around centralized state -limited power of nobility -all Japanese equal as commoners (similar to wahts going on in US, national citizenship over __________ -samurais could not carry swords anymore -fascinations with all things western -trips to the west, students studies abroad, western dances, clothing, and hairstyle -combined elements in distinctive ways elected Parliament, political parties, democratic ideals -Ideology: gift of sacred emperor -modern public education for all children, Confucianism or Buddhism? called for loyalty to emperor restraints on Jap society miserable and unhealthy factory conditions heavy taxes on peasants- slid into poverty, had to sell daughters, starvation own empire building campaign 3-9: European Imperialism March 9 lecture Comparing 16th and 17th century colonization and 19th c. colonization Not the same disease impact in second wave of imperialism Economically- in context of Ind. Rev. in Europe Extensive raw materials and ag. Products to feet ind. Workers Needed to sell products it was cranking off- producing far more than they could consume at home-looked at China steam ships and railways- faster transportation and were able to go to once isolated places under wire cables- instant and far reaching communication medicine- military- drills, powerful firearms (rifles, machine guns) changing perceptions of the other/outsiders race for distinguishing bt the ruler and the ruled not timeless quality, but a social construct- cultures have to define what they mean by race constructed over time biological/scientific study, future possibilities? Europeans saw imperialism as inevitable, natural development where a superior race was meant to rule over weaker ?child? races Civilizing mission- Christrianity to heathens, gov., work discipline, market production, education, clothing for naked savages, healthcare Suppression of native customs in favor to western way of living Duty to progress and civilization EVOLUTIONARY THINKING- social Darwinism Survival of the fittest- not just a natural development, but progressive forces helped 1900- only Ethiopia and Liberia were free Indian Rebellion of 1857 (Sepoy Rebellion) 1853 infield rifle, muzzle loading gun plot to convert them to Christianity re forced labor- unpaid labor on public projects (railroads or gov buildings) form of taxation sometimes *early 20th c. in Kongo- Belgium King Leopold II (1835-1908) collect rubber, quotas for individuals and communities if they didn?t mean quota, beaten and sometimes killed Kongo population cut in half (10 million to 5 million) Wars, starvation, economic dislocation, disease Rubber industry instead of food crops Europeans talked about atrocities, some horrified, others made a certain amount of land be cultivated into cash crops for them to pay taxes to the state Tax burden and fewer people devoting fewer resources to production of food crops Wave of famines in 19th c. Most places specialized in only 2 crops?. wage labor- in Africa and Asia- need for money and lack of land forced people to work in mines and _____ Colonial Rule 1. global network of economic markets, more than ever world connected economically 2. sense of duty, some aspects of modernization to the colonies 3. No where in colonial world did anyone experience a break through to become a modern industrialized society, one exception might be Japan ex. India- at the time of freedom one of poorest countries in world, European rule didn?t help them overcome poverty, failure is debated *dead in for some, independence seemed to offer new hpe for different opportunities nationalism and decolonization! *transformation of identities within colonial societies colonized people took in directions unintended by colonial rulers Christianity and women Africa converts- independent churches, different than missionaries had intended Leaders who could regenerate their societies Tribal and ethnic identities- put different spin on negative connotations 3-11: The US and Japan in an Age of Imperialism 3-23: The Great War 3-23-09 World Civ notes The Great War: The World in Upheaval (Missed first few min of class) -creations of dozens of new states, exactly what precept had wanted -unforeseen consequences: 10 million dead, 20 million others wounded or maimedtmail -methods of killing that were previously only in science fiction clouds of poison gas, invisible fleets of submarines -political assassinations fairly common in early 20th century (1900-1913 40 heads of state were assassinated, inc. William McKinley in 1901) QUESTIONS What factors led to the outbreak of the Great War? Why did the scope and scale of the conflict escalate so quickly? What were the consequences and legacies of the Great War? Accident waiting to happen, even though shocking Competing states of Europe Rivalries intensified in 1870s with rise of German and Italy as unified national states Germany industrializing, wanted own place in the sun Disruptive in German political life Early 20th c.?most monarchs of Europe were related somehow by blood ?Willy (of Germany) and Nikki (of Russia)? alliances: triple alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy and the ________ of Russia, France, Great Britain regional stability small spark when ____________________________ Slavic nationalism? Serbia? National security threatened Serbians had patron in Russian Czar Nicolas the 2nd?saw them as Slavic little cousins Russia as protectors of South Slavs Wouldn?t let Austria-Hungary mettle in Serbian affairs Willy was a threat to Nikki Germany had humiliated France in previous war, wanted revenge British also uneasy with German efforts to build navy to threaten dominance of English Navy Ottomans were nervous about Russian encroachment to the south *Within weeks of the assassination, drawn into War Outbreak was an accident, not planned assassination Structure of alliances made Europe prone to that kind of accident Growing sense of nationalism. -profoundly meaningful for ordinary people (public pressure from below, little room for heads to compromise, widespread public support when decision made to go to war (Serbian nationalism, freedom fighters) And within great powers themselves Parades held to send off ?servants? of the nation (military) Everyone had sense of purpose (masked gender and class conflicts) Arena of conflict and competition bt rival states Competition over colonies and spheres of influence (China, Africa) Industrialized militarism Arms race- military superiority, world competition Heads of states were military uniforms Everyone had substantial armies Arms race in naval warships, sea power held prestige Britain vs. Germany Elaborate war plans for moving men and materials on outbreak of war Couldn?t fight two front war War lasted 4 years (they expected it to be much quicker) Trench warfare?elaborate systems of defenses.. sort of science Hard for offense to work against them Bloody results?many causalities (million or more in single battle) Germany suffered most losses, fought on two fronts *industrial age weapons (new technology): machine guns, poison gas, submarines?. *total war: mobilization of entire population for war effort Expanded power of government (war socialism) Took greater control on the economy Production essential to national defense Labor Unions, strikes, sacrifices for common good Propaganda campaigns to make other countries look bad to public (embellished stories) Women replaced men that went to battle *Europe?s imperial reach: why it grew to such scale Hundreds of laborers from other uninvolved countries sent men and resources to participate Battles in Africa and South Pacific as British and French tried to seize German colonies Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Revolution (1917) Dramatic result: assassination of Czar in Russia??? Russia very rural (83% were rural peasants) War showed how much their gov. and military was outdated and unorganized (autocratic gov.) Growth of various opposition groups Any strain on society dangerous for Czar (Russo-Japanese war was humiliating defeat for Russia) Czar Nicolas 2nd still had power but war was going like russo-jap war Feb. 1917- workers (including women) protested in St. Petersburg Violent clashes with police Some soldiers deserted army and sided with protestors Police decided to join protestors too Nicolas 2nd forced to advocated the thrown, step aside Various political factions stepped in? opened doors for massive social upheaval Communes, soviets (workers took control of their factories) Peasants began seizing landlords estates, burning houses, dividing up land bt themselves Areas demanded greater autonomy and independence Gov factions would not meet demands Wanted them out of Great War Opening for more radical group: Bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin Exploited working class would initial communist revolution when they saw own interest in society (Marxist idea) Bolsheviks didn?t back that idea, too outdated Workers revolution could be jumpstarted with right leadership Revolutionaries needed to wake up workers and peasants to own interests DICIPLINE needed to spark revolutions there and other parts of the world Lenin: gifted politician (peace, land and bread) Land to the peasants Workers control over factories Independence for non-Russian nationalities Seized control of gov buildings overnight (October Revolution) Non-Bolsheviks were arrested or fled St. Petersburg (capital) America intervenes: Woodrow Wilson?s dream of a League of Nations 1917- any ships in british waters were fair game for warfare from Germany 3-25: 20th Century Transformations in Science and Culture 3-30: Totalitarianism in the U.S.S.R. and Germany The Rise of Totalitarianism: The U.S.S.R. and Germany (3-30-2009) (missed last Wed.) Compare political and economic developments in the USSR ad Germany in the periods between the world wars: - - - The Russian Revolution (1917) Lenin?s followers took control of gov. Lenin promised reelections of new national assembly (1918) Only quarter of votes cast Outlawed future meetings of assembly Lenin outlawed opposition parties, got rid of local gov, took control of media and universities Continued food problems New reign of terror by secret police Result: bloody civil war The Russian Civil War (1918-1921) and ?War Communism? Many enemies Red = blood of the workers White forces = all kinds of anti-Bolsheviks White to note opposition to B?s red minorities Even troops from US, Britain, _____, and Japan (allied against Germany) hoped Russia would rejoin the war efforts Black armies of anarchists Green armies of peasants that wanted to protect their lands from the others Bolshevik discipline and divisions allowed Bolsheviks to hang on to power *Leon Trotsky: Knight on white stallion vs. beast and murderer (Jew?) Intense mixed feelings Bolsheviks claimed to be protecting masses from capitalist, imperialist dogs Over 200,000 killed by secret police (Nik II and family also) Over 9 million Russians died (3 mil more than WWI) ?war communism? began to look like dictatorship under Lenin another 5 million died from famines bc gov seized crops food production dropped from 90-10 percent New economic policy Free market reforms Banking and large industries under control of gov. Small scale ownership of land and businesses Peasants could sell their goods Lenin died in 1924- strokes Followed by power struggle 1928- Joseph Stalin new soviet leader (not even Russian- from province of Georgia) seemed less threatening than Trotsky (wanted to take the revolution to the world) Stalin more concerned with consolidating Revolution at home (safer choice) The Five Year Plan and Collectivization Were ___ years behind, needed revolutionary change *Collectivization of agriculture?to feed the workers in the city some peasants burned own crops and starved to death rather to join soviet collectives ?Kulaks?: prosperous peasant farmers Stalin viewed them as enemies of communism (because they had success, exploited the poor), denied them the opp. To join collectives Middle of winter, confiscated all of their possessions and made it state property, even their clothes ~10-12 million herded into railroad cars and shipped to prison camps in N. Russia or Siberia (~3.5 million died by 1935) Enormous famine in 1933 (rotten food, horse droppings)?many died Only comparable to slaughter of Jews in holocaust -Stalin responded by denying that their was even a famine, they were just enemies of the real people -Five year plan a success after Four years -Claimed to have eliminated unemployment (got rid of several millions of people) -tightly control travel of citizens, only took foreign visitors to certain model places *deception..political style The Great Purge and the Gulag System Removed officers from the army, sent people to prison camps (gulags) Millions died in economic and political upheavals Terror not widely known inside or outside of Russia Careful about tours that people took Did invite Westerners to model places They were impressed and sent back good reports Fascism evolved as result of ____________________ From the Fasces of classical Rome: bundle of stick wrapped around axe, carried by Roman magistrate, beat/executed people with it: symbol of power and authority, esp. against those who threatened the law, hailed like a flag, strength through unity, militaristic outlook -authority of state over individual -power of violence Benito Mussolini and Italian Fascism (Following WWI) -Many Italians felt that Italy was shortchanged in peace negotiations after war, desearved more territorial gains -feared a Bolshevik rev. -Mussolini made Fascist party -1922 was small minority in gov. -constitutional monarch of Italy feared that Muss would disrupt society with an army so he invited him in -press under tight control during Muss?s reign -allowed businesses to have control -Adolph Hitler was impressed German discontent under Weimar Republic (1920s) General disillusionment at peace that ended the Great War Severe economic problems?money virtually worthless?more efficient to burn it than to buy firewood Adolph Hitler rose to leadership- Nazis Unlikely leader, born and raised in Austria, aspired to be a painter but rejected by art school, lacked direction til WWI, volunteered in army, decorated veteran -viewed communists and Jews as biggest threats -Liberalism and Democratic gov. too weak -attempted to overthrow gov., kidnap political leaders (Weimar leaders) in Munich -German police showed more fortitude than Italian police to capture Hitler -Hitler?s trial increased popularity in Germany ?not treason to overthrow gov when gov is bad to people, received smallest penalty -nationalism, strong and powerful new Germany -unemployment..Largest minority party in Germany politics offered position of Chancellor of Germany state of National emergency dictatorship within a year did not appoint a successor as pres when pres died, took the power Nazi Racial Theory and Propaganda -World was racial hierarchy with Germans and other Western Europeans at top, then those of the Mediterranean, then Slavic of Eastern Europe, then Africans, Gypsies, and Jews were at bottom -Jews were diabolically clever, conspiring to take over whole world through communism, associated with Communist Russia and money -others who were physically inferior, those with handicaps, homosexuals -acted on racial theories?sterilized those that were racially inferior goal: force them to emigrate out of Germany -The Nuremburg Laws (1935): Jews have no German rights, can?t procreate with them elaborate charts of who counted as Jewish, ways to keep Arian purity -Kristallnacht (1938): night of the broken glass, destruction of Jewish synogags and businesses -many Jews left Germany -most non-Jewish Germans put up with developments German Economic recovery: Infrastructure and Military Expansion -seemed to have good results in tackling economic problems -new roads, new national highway system, dams -summer Olympics -weapons and military guilds *Totalitarianism: Stalin and Hitler compared 1. Extraordinary power focused in an individual?s hands 2. Exclusivist ideology (Class war not race war) 3. A single mass party (opposition outlawed) 4. Secret police and systematic terror to eliminate internal dissent 5. Gov. monopoly of media and education 4-1: Industrial Crisis of the 1930s 4-1-2009 Focus Questions: - - - - American Non-intervention: The Neutrality Acts (1930s) Military and diplomatic innovations Threatened to cut trade with any country who went to war Still involved economically across the world Led to question..puzzle?how can you grow with them economically when you?re trying to avoid diplomatic/political relationships? Still a problem Is it possible/preferable for a world power to stay isolated? What level of intervention appropriate? US was not economically isolated in years following war Stock Market crash, Great Depression Mechanization of Agriculture On the rise before WWI bc of application of industrial machinery PROBLEM: inc. production meant crop prices were dropping Laborers/farmers weren?t making as much money, couldn?t spend as much money on manufactured goods Markets suffered from overproduction Many abandoned farms to try to find work in cities factories couldn?t afford to employ everyone because they were already suffering from overproduction After WWI, US stronger than ever before Didn?t suffer from same loss of life American industry benefited from helping with the war loans to Britain, France, Belgium, and GERMANY Economic crisis in Germany (1920s-1930s) Inflation US propped up Germany with loans so that Germany could pay back France so that France could pay back the US Economic house of cards based on US economy (was booming in 1920s) Then stock Market crash in NY 1929?whole world affected Called back loans, credit tight Disastrous economic situation US congress passed series of high tariffs?high taxes on imports Others followed The Great Depression Bread lines, soup kitchens, shanny towns ½ American banks failed, wiped out life savings, not insured by federal gov. trade and credit plummeted, had to lay off workers 3 major branches of response: *communist totalitarianism (model of Soviet Russia) glowing reports from model collectives from visits to Russia (were carefully controlled, in reality tens of millions were malnurited, locked away, executed *fascism (Mussilini, Hitler)? confident visions of national power **attempt to reform capitalism within diplomatic system Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal RELEIF, RECOVERY, REFORM (banking system, Wall street, oversight bt business management and labor (minimum wage)) Gov. could help by gov. system, prime the economy, put money in peoples pockets to spend and jumpstart economy Gov. employed many for gov. projects?parks, artists, writers Give farmers subsidies and encourage them not to grow crops in order to regulate grain prices for ex. Still?1/5 American workers unemployed WWII?larger gov spending, employment for thousands of Am. Men Did not end depression, but alleviated the worst of suffering New responsibility for elderly and those that couldn?t survive for themselves?SOCIAL SECURITY The ?Four Freedoms? by Norman Rockwell American values (Freedom of speech and worship (traditional)) Freedom from want (right to economic security, more active role of Gov. in economy) and freedom from fear (new direction in am. Foreign policy, did not yet know magnitude of Stalin or Hitler, Non-interventionism still dominant when it came to politics Woodrow Wilson?s vision? Much more dangerous place for democracy and liberty ?Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere? Poverty in Japan, radical nationalist groups grew strength there Military expansion>>territorial expansion Specific problems: GB and US limited naval production?.5:5:3 ratio Japanese couldn?t emigrate easily because of US racial quotas (limit on who could come in) Japan dependent on foreign places?airplane fuel Empire Building: Asians for Asians aka (?Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere?) Japaenese invasion of China in 1937 4-6: World War II 4-6-2009 World War II -Germany and Japan desired territorial expansion Essential to be major world power -Hitler viewed Eastern Europe like Europeans viewed manifest destiny to the western US -it was their destiny to expand -felt military was secure enough to march into Austria and unite with them -Fall 1938- Hitler didn?t think anyone would stop him -invaded Poland ? IGNITED WWII -Japan involved in full scale war with China since 1937 -stalemate, not close to victory over China -Japan was dependent on US for many goods, esp. fuel and such -Americans hostile to the idea of Japanese industrial expansion -Japan didn?t know if they could succeed in war against the US, but it was necessary for their future Immense loss of life in Soviet Union and China China- at same time as Japanese invasion, civil war bt nationalist and communist factions (3 way war going on in China) -changes in technology introduced by the war -whole populations became to be defined as he enemy -?comfort women? = sex slaves, only 25% survived war, most unable to have children, shameful past, Jap gov. tried to destroy any documentation about it (sketchy numbers due to this) -Holocaust: anti-Semitism long history in Europe (persecution of Jews) Final solution to he Jewish Question: kill them all Killed about 6 million in camps Also processed soviet civilians, soviet prisoners of war, polish people, gypsies, handicap people 11 million total Hitler made Stalin seem like a more attractive alternative Systematic, industrialized, scientific killing of the Jews Gassed to death Some used as experiments, testing poisonous chemicals, how long it took to freeze to death Kept meticulous records and photographs -The Battle of Britain (Jul-Oct 1940) strategic bombing, rockets, atomic bombs designed to control infrastructure and discourage the moral of the opponent to fight aircraft used for bombing raids **bombing of civilians happened accidentally?. German aircraft got lost, dropped bomb on London (instructed not to do so but lost their target) German V-1 and V-2 weapons?flying rockets, flying bombs Killed almost 9000 in London, introduced too late in war to change war in favor of Germans US captured some of their scientists to use for their benefit Allied strategic bombing in Europe: Area bombardment and ?Dehousing? Focus on destroying moral of the people Dehousing the German workforce At night when workers were in their houses Bombing of Dresden Germany American strategic bombing of Japan (Tokyo, March 1945) US would drop leaflets on Japanese cities warning them to leave Night attacks where they dropped bombs on them August: US introduced new weapon?atomic bombs Bombing of Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) and Nagasaki (August 9, 1945) Little Boy-Hiroshima-destroyed about 90% of city, Fat man in Nagasaki Destroyed everything within a mile Blinding flash Radiation from blast would contaminate those that survived, increased cancer rates, birth defects Firebombing campaigns killed more than blast at Hiroshima Island hopping by US to Japan Iwo Jima (Feb-March 1945) Month long battle, first fight on Japanese land Japs had miles of hidden tunnels Kamikazes and Okinawa (March-June 1945) Japanese turned planes into suicide bombs (kamikaze attacks) REASON FOR DROPPING ATOMIC BOMBS ON JAPAN *Atomic weapons would save more American lives and save more Japanese lives than total invasion (calculation of total war) American leaders want to demonstrate power of atomic bombs to send message to soviet union Germany and Japan were definitively beaten, no stab in the back legends like those following WWI Relations between European colonial powers and those they ruled around the world were changed WWII less decisive 4-8: Formation of a Bipolar World 4-8-2008 Focus Questions: - - - Origin of WWII: German empire building?.look in book March 1938 marched into Austria and declared a union between Germany and Austria Austria didn?t take very strong action Then western Czechoslovakia (German speaking part) ?Peace in Our time?; Neville Chamberlin Hitler invaded Poland?Europe plunged into destructive war Could war have been avoided? Responses by France and England = appeasement, moral failing Why did they give in to Hitler? -Desire for peace, still lived in destruction of WWI, accomplished little even for victors -War over Austria, then British and French would have prevented German speaking people as uniting as one country?aggressive but a moral high-ground of national determination, peace settlement unfair to Germany (guilt left over from WWI) -US could not be counted on as Ally to fight Hitler, neutrality laws -Soviets could not be counted on, Stalin signed non aggression act a week before Germany invaded Poland -let these other powers bleed each other white while Soviets made progress themselves -shipped goods to fuel Hitler?s war machine Hitler thought Britain and France were cowards?invaded rest of Czech. That was not German, Western Powers saw him as a liar and war would come Hitler thought it would intimidate them into him getting his way ?_______? = lightening war tanks, Fighter planes, dive bombers?.hundreds of miles of territory, Poland fell in a month, Russia given part of E. Poland for non-aggression Stalin stole Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, E. Poland (Hitler could give it bc planned to get it back shortly) For Hitler, Russia and Eastern Europe had been grand prize! Stalin refused to believe Hitler would attack him -Received 76 separate warnings from his administration, US?s Roosevelt, and other power?s administrations?.were disinformation -Refused to prepare any defense. thought it was cowardly, treason -placed all things, fuel reserves on border with Poland? many causalities in first few months of war?initial offensive by Germany (more than in WWI) ¾ air force, ½ soviet tanks (Stalin had executed about ½ of his military core previously) -Fall rains, muddy roads like pig-pins, then worst winter -Finally made way to eastern European Front -then Japan attack at Pearl Harbor -US joined forces against Japan AND Germany -more than 3 more years of war -with US and Russia against Germany, time and resources no longer on Hitler?s side *Germans no longer able to push on Eastern front advancing armies from west and east Hitler committed suicide, Germany surrendered about a week later Could Germany have beaten Russia in the first place, even under the most ideal circumstances? Russia had about 20 times the land area and much more pop. But Hitler new roads turned to mud and then froze in the winter?hard for armies Would occupation of Moscow given them victory?...Napoleon didn?t have success with it..froze to death waiting for a surrender. no historical precedent Hitlers racial idealology?conviction that Russians were inferior race, underestimated their will to fight, terror of Germany scared people that Germany could have gotten support from bc they wanted to flee from Stalins regime Nazis made life under Stalin look like more attractive alternative Captured Russian POWs were shot, shipped to Stalin?s own concentration camps WWII = Great Patriotic War Hitler would kill them if captured, more will to fight In the West: Stalin?s image as ?Uncle Joe? Crucial figure in stopping Hitler and restoring world peace 1943: Time Magazines man of the year (The devil would have looked good too if he stopped Hitler) *American believed soviet rhetoric of _________________ thought they were setting up communist regimes instead of finishing off the Germans *Stalin didn?t think western allies were doing much, his soviets were making the most sacrifices (had most casualties) lost close to 25 million people Western powers had uneasy relationship with Russian back in Soviet war??? Eastern Europe as buffer zone against _____ Puppet communist regimes set up in many places?maintained military presence in all of those countries KGB deported democratic reps from ___ and ___ Truman Doctrine (1947), ?Containment? (of Communism) Would support free peoples that were resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures Support of Greece and Turkey at first, then more generalized strategic outlook Domino effect Economic restoration of much of Europe with Marshall plan?about 13 billion dollars to rebuild *Offered it to Russia but Russia made its own?rival economic alliances *Then military and peace alliances made too *East-West split = IRON CURTAIN division of Germany into eastern (Germany) and western (France, Britain, US) occupation zones Soviets announced highways leading into West Berlin were closed, needed repair, technical difficulties Wanted to take control of West Berlin (people would not get supplies and would leave) Used air life to get supplies into city?11 months til Russians lifted land blockade Later, 1961, Berlin Wall to try to stop migration of over 3 million from eastern to western Great symbol of Cold war US gave military and financial aide to any country that was threatened with communism Soviets supported wars of national liberation, tried to build military parody with US Tried to avoid direct confrontation Caused many civil wars, international struggles 1948: Korea split into N and S 1950: N Koreans ignored treaty agreements, passed line, occupied, only tiny part in south brought US into fight by United Nations easily/quickly pushed North Koreans back to line South Korea had counter offense, almost took over N Korea Chinese were concerned that US would not stop with Korea Some (US?s McArthur) argued that invasion of China was necessary bc they were aiding N Korea communism Pres said be cautious China invaded??? Korean War (1950-1953) ignored?lost in shuffle of ___ and Vietnam war Many US soldiers served and died *N and S Korea still divided along that line Vietnam: either should not have invaded or didn?t use enough force Proxy wars: US and Soviets viewed all nations as potential ally or potential enemy Threat of nuclear annilation played sig. part in putting at least some units on a spread of general World War or Global Total War *Cuban Missile Crisis in Oct. 1962 Cuba ruled by corrupt dictator, then Fidel Castro (Socialist system)took power (US thought they could work with him) Many Cubans fled and immigrated to US JFK: get rid of Castro (Operation Mongoose) Powder in his close that would make his characteristic beard fall out and humiliate him He loved cigars, exploding cigar Loved baseball, slip him an exploding baseball Slip poison in a milkshake..got poison to fav. restaurant but stop going Luck that he avoided assassination attempts Mafia hit men didn?t work either 1960s: JFK and Robert Kennedy both assassinated (strange) Idea of armed intervention in Cuba Bay of Pigs fiasco (April 1961) US gov funded and planned invasion, said they would send air support After invasion in motion, JFK said that even though US fingerprints were all over the scheme, said that they had plausible deniability Didn?t pull invasion but pulled air support and they were easily knocked out by Castro?s armies *Castro in more connection with Russia Soviets had medium range nuclear missiles in Cuba Variety of US responses proposed Didn?t want all out war, US navy would block any attempts to ship more weapons into Cuba Also prepared for nuclear strike against Soviet Union *US agreed not to invade Cuba and take missiles out of area that pointed to Turkey ?Duck and Cover? and fall out shelters in the 1950s 4-13: Decolonization and Independence 4-13-09 Decolonization (year of independence) Modern map of middle east Vietnam (cold war) Afghanistan (cold war) Case Studies: India and Africa Why did decolonization happen? (and how do we explain the timing) Thought to be natural to go after independence, self-rule (but actually new development) 1. European factors contradictions bt European ideals and realities Christianity, material progress (awkward with realities of racism, poverty?) Democratic values (counter to dictatorships) National self-determination (counter to colonial experience of not giving much voice to people that were ruled in colonial system) 2. Broader changes in global economic political power Timing? Changes in international bases of power destructive wars discredited European moral superiority global crisis in WWII led to United Nations (League of nations after WWI failed) Dialog bt nations could prevent disastrous wars Those seeking independence could state their case to rest of world US and Soviet Union rise to huge powers?their ideologies opposed the old ways of Europe 3. African and Asian factors -mid 20th c. : several generations of elites had received western education, familiar with these powers and the contradictions, could channel rational for independence -ordinary people also interested in independence, military people, those with uncertain economic outlooks thought they could benefit, young people looking for opportunities -major new questions emerged -what group of people constitutes nation that can rule themselves, what minorities should submit to the idea of a nation -who speaks on behalf of the nation, who has power -what strategies should be used to pursue independence? -what ideology should be at the forefront? *regional, ethnic, class divisions *only thing uniting people is opposition to rulers and want of independence, what happens when independence is achieved? INDIA Few thought of themselves as Indians, had local identities -India included Pakistan before decolonization -Size and social complexity of Western Europe -Indian rebellion of 1857 (?Sepoy rebellion?)?triggered bc they offended Hindus and Muslims by using pig and cow fat to grease ammunition, plot to convert them to Christianity by offending their own religions -created Indian identity against the British -Indian National Congress (INC) est. 1885 Trying to gain inclusion in social, military and economic life of British India -Mohandas Ghandi (1869-1948) studies law in England shy, not successful lawyer upon return to India 1893- took position in Indian Law firm in South Africa (strictly segregated society) saw racism?non-violent protests ( Satyagraha or ?Truth force?) *(non-violence quote from slide) returned to India, mass campaigns that included a variety of groups included Hindus and Muslims moral transformations of individuals real problem was England but modern civilization?too competitive, materialistic, war-like had abandoned spiritual values (cradle of Hinduism and Buddhism) envisioned society of harmonious and self-sufficient villages?morality not all followers bought into this vision, wanted science and industrial development divide between Hindus and Muslims Independence and Partition (1947) -Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Muslim minority feared they could not protect interests in society ruled by Hindus?wanted own state divided into Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India division was enormously painful refugee crisis as they moved from one country to another trying to match homes with the religion they followed, much violence Gandhi assassinated, blamed it on him AFRICA One of last places to throw off power domination of white settlers Governed through system of segregation called ?apartheid? in South Africa 80% black, virtually no political rights, small white minority governed and blacks did labor some ethnic groups put on reservations (grey areas on map) opposition and resistance, rebellions, strikes, organized protests from religious and political organizations African National Congress (ANC) est. 1912, professional and middle class Trying to find place within the order Same values as white men Moderate peaceful protests Then new generation of ANC leaders expanded protests to include non-violence civil disobedience Nelson Mandela Boycotts, strikes like Gandhi 20-30 yrs earlier Sharpeville (March 1960) Protest turned tragic, police officers began shooting into crowd, killed 69 blacks Angry?rioting ANC was banned as communist organization, leaders thrown in prison Camps for guerilla fighters were est. by whites? Mandela imprisoned 1964-1990, President 1994-1999 (quote) His party was legalized, ANC brought to power then he became president 1994 elections were peaceful in contrast to race-war feared for so long (and violence from the past) Increasing urban violence in poor neighborhoods before this Independent S. Africa: anyone in favor of equal rights could join **South Africa expelled from Olympics at one point, some performed refused to perform there, US and Britain refused to sell weapons there, trade sanctions against South Africa South Africa was most wealthy and technologically advanced US and European powers didn?t do anything before because: Worried about spread of Marxism, ally in fight against communism Angola Civil War (1975-2002) Between factions that had been fighting against Portugal MPLA: Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola More straightforward socials, support from Soviet Union and Cuba UNITA: National Union for the Total Independence of Angola supported by Chinese and Koreans Angola has natural wealth (gold and oil) but used resources to buy weapons Much death WAS DEMOCRACY WORKABLE? IS IT IN OTHER AREAS TODAY? No consideration to different cultures or ethnicities Apathy and cinisicm: failure of attempts at independence Fear and violence..tend to concentrate more power in war lords or military leaders that could offer protection Meddling of super powers that viewed local crises as threat to global peace/power 4-15: End of the Cold War 4-15-2009 Challenges to the superpower hegemony and end of the cold war Political alignments Capitalism and communism (soviet) were mutually exclusive, couldn?t coincide Caps morally bankrupt, growing gaps bt rich and poor Each saw other side as threat to dominate the globe, determined not to let it happen Communisms high point ? 1970s (80% of world) US gave aid to over 100 nations across the globe Domination of the Americans and the soviets in international affairs never complete as they wanted Dots rep. areas of guerilla movements FOCUS QUESTIONS: 1. In what ways was Soviet and American domination incomplete during the Cold War? What were the major challenges to superpower hegemony? 2. What factors account for the decline of communism in the late 20th c.? US and Soviet alliances in Europe US resistance from French leader Degal Degal rejected partial nuclear test ban that US and Soviets had signed off on Wanted to stay in the game and keep its power 19402-1980s Soviets ruled buffer zone by force Southeast and central Asia Vietnam and Afghanistan Vietnam originally French colony Hochimen drove Japanese out of Vietnam in WWII French helped free them of Japanese Soviet Union provided North Vietnam with supplies Conflict in Vietnam, 1950-1975 (Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 1964): allowed pres to conduct military operations in SE Asia without having to go to Congress to declare war formally -WHY? Johnson wanted to advance domestic policies (social safety net, social reforms for the poor, Medicare, delay public discussion of true cost of American advancement overseas -maintaining American credibility instead of winning war?, commitment of fighting communism -Soviets continued to fight -Credibility problem between pres?s claim that America was winning and the inc. casualties -Public newspapers, radios made war public info. Rivalry between British and Russians aka ?The Great Game? of the 19th century British prevailed over Russians Afghanistan still rough place for outsiders (Af. Warriors attacked British and Indian troops, only 1 british guy survived 1919- British finally granted Af. Independence 1978- Marxist group took power in Af. (in favor of Soviets?) armed opposition groups against Marxist gov.: Mujahideen Guerrillas in Af. (US supported them) Soviet intervention, 1979-1989 Soviets finally withdrew in 1989, communist regime collapsed Mujahideen warlords still fought amongst themselves Taliban came in and promised return to law and order Repressed minority groups, severely suppressed rights of women Over 1 million Afghans killed in this contest US sent money to Mujahideen, CIA smuggled in weapons, aircraft missiles to use against soviet helicopters Osama Bin laden: in Af. With group of own Muslim warriors that were fighting the soviets US said they didn?t give weapons to these Muslim fighters, not train Bin laden Treaty of friendship between Chinese and Soviets Mao Zedong and Communist China China- 20th c. was wild ride, communists gained control in 1949, rise of communism shaped by guerilla warfare, war with Japanese in WWII Communists gained control: credit for fighting ag. Japs in WWII, reputation for honestly not found in nationalist gov, popular with the peasants The Great Leap Forward (1958-1962): both farming and small scale industrial production would now focus on peasant communes, peasants chopped down all trees around them to fuel iron furnaces to produce steal, problem of deforestation, even used parts of own houses, iron was so low quality that it was essentially useless --agricultural techniques deeply flawed- massive corrosion left useless land for farming, at harvest time food left to rot in fields while farmers tried to meet industrial quotas for iron --locust plague detryoed what crops remained. --Massive famine- 20 million Chinese starved to death --Seduced by capitalism, didn?t have enough heart of the program?so?.Cultural rev. The Cultural Revolution (1966-1969) Rebellion against Communist party Many skilled (teachers, military officials, etc) Chinese killed or shipped off to rural labor camps Soviets backed out of promise to help China make own military arsenal Revisionists for not putting up more active challenge, going soft China made own nuclear arsenal, brink of war with Russia, possible nuclear strike by Soviets US- 1979 full diplomatic relations with ____ (china?) after death of Mal in 1976 New Chinese leader criticized some of Mal?s mistakes, economic reforms, ended collective farming and supported small scale agriculture, more authority to small scale businesses, China more open to world economy and open up to the economy Massive construction, surge in exports, better nutrition Better material life Chinese Communist part unwilling to give up its monopoly on political power Democracy invited anarchy, would lead to chaos Tiananmen Square Protests- 7 weeks until Chinese gov. decided to declare marshal law in Beijing (military rule) Tank man, why are you here? Dragged away by secret police, powerful symbol of protest Mikhail Gorbachev: Perestroika 2 main policy changes: Perestroika (?Reconstructing?) Similar to China after death of Mal Farming, welcoming of foreign investments Glasnost (?Openness?)- freedom for newspapers and ___ Troubling details about Communist past Was hoping to revitalize Soviets, but eventually it collapsed Gorbachev under house arrest, occupied by tanks and soldiers End of 1991- soviet union separated into 15 separate states, none goverened by Communists WHY DID IT HAPPEN? 1. economic failure: by late 1970s, communists economy saw no signs of catching up with more advanced capitalist economies *Kitchen debate in Moscow between Nixon and Khrushchev debated cap. Vs. communism washing machines, make-up, any American could afford these things K smeered at cap. Attitude toward women, they were silly gadgets and useless luxury, also have food that would put food in peoples mouth and force it down their throat too? In Soviet unions had to stand in long lines for poor quality consumer goods, had to stand in long lines just to get bread to eat, more aware of their shortcomings in comparison to places elsewhere 2. moral failure labor camps, slave economy horror stories from China: Mal?s Cultural Revolution wore away claims of moral superiority over Cap. Communism seen as road to nowhere 4-20: McWorld and Jihad in a World without Borders April 20th notes *look over all focus questions and see what you have questions on for wed. Globalization Cultural relationships, responses to cultural integration McWorld and Jihad Barbie doll more harmful than any missile Foreign to Iran?s culture Sara and brother Dara to counteract them- 8 year old twins, helping each other solve problems looking to parents for guidance *All dolls manufactured in China TRIANGULAR RELATIONSHIP Growing integration Conflicts, further divergence Focus questions: -What is meant by ?globalization?? Is globalization a curse? A blessing? Both? Neither? What do YOU think? -Why did a particularly violent form of Islamic fundamentally emerge in the 20th century? -QUESTION FROM LOST ON EARTY?what factors led to the massive refugee crisis?email US military babes, 2003 Invaded Af. 2003 war with Iraq bc Hussain had supposedly been developing weapons of mass destruction Globalization economic and cultural relations avoid any return to depression era conditions world bank, IMF, negotiate rules among powerful countries required poor countries to adopt free market and ____ or order to qualify for loans saw world as single market, reduction of tariffs, free movement of capital, limited taxes technology: huge tankers, air express services, fiber optic cables, the internet lowered transportation costs huge trans-national corporations (Mattel and Barbies) no country as successful in global market place than US -McDonalds most successful?30 million customers every day Would food be excepted elsewhere? What changes would have to be made for different diets? Foreign intrusion? First in Canada, then many other countries, in 1990 almost half of growth sales out of US Cultural adjustments: India- big Macs made of Mutton (sheep), Muslim-pork is unclean, not sold, Philippines- mixed spaghetti, Norway- grilled salmon sandwiches, Moscow- woman employee had to stand outside with bullhorn for smiles and drive-thru had to print instructions for it, Japan-Donald McDonald bc trouble pronouncing R, had to overcome table manners (touching food with hands) -American Movies world wide, brand-names (Kleenex, Nike, Spam?), Michael Jordan famous in China, Elvis Presley famous everywhere, Jazz and Rock-n-roll, slang words like crazy, cool, and groovy -Japanese contributions- Godzilla, Pokemon, Anime *Does success of US allow them to undermine other nations? Does it drown local industries with cheaply imported foreign goods? Life expectancy grew, infant mortality rate improved, better nutrition Great wealth gap, globalization didn?t help to narrow it, access to internet, education, job opportunities, availability of medical care and clean water to drink New kinds of resentments, conflicts bt rich and poor countries *militant fundamentalism (Islamic fundamentalism big problem for us today) tensions between modern intellectual and cultural? trends and religions spiritual values being forgotten term started in US- everything in Bible should be translated literally, conflict with Darwinism in schools?then term spread with same idea *Why Islamic is so dangerous: 1/3 of world pop is Christian 1/5 are Muslim (majority if 57 different countries but come from diverse backgrounds) Arab and Muslim are not the same thing Sunni (85%) and Shi?a (Majority in Iraq and Iran) *economic conditions breed discontent, crowded cities, unemployment, gov. corruptions *backdrop of imperialism, foreign intrusion, years following WWI after collapse of Ottoman Empire Britain and France carved them into states and political parties were based on Western models for Western interests and many resented Western dominance, felt exploited, remembered the glory days when Muslims ruled much of the world and wanted new golden age Western occupation of land and resources and creation of ISREAL in 1948 Israel was invaded, many Arab-Israeli wars, Israelis backed by US and had military success, captured Jerusalem which was holy city for Arabs and Jews Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) Saddam used Chemical weapons against Iran and ethnic minority, Kurds, within own borders US supported Saddam?s Iraqis, useful counter-balance against _______ *Donald Rumsfeld meets Saddam Hussein (1983) *Iran Contra-Affair Shah Pahlavi, the Iranian Revolution Shah fled and Shiite leader took over ( ____) applied law of Allah, shut down discos, bars, alcohol outlawed, new dress code (women with veils and long loose fitting clothes) Support of Hamas (Palestine) and Hezbollah (Lebanon) Schools and youth centers, but target Israel with bombs Soviets vs. Mujahideen in Afghanistan Osama bin Laden Al-Qaeda Is Peace IMPOSSIBLE? Decided to put aside differences and try to make peace in late 1970s Anwar El Sadat (devout Muslim, believer president, prayer mark caused by daily prayer) with Carter and Begin (1974) Peace treaties in 1979 but Sadat assassinated by Islamic radicals for recognition of Israel Yitzhak Rabin (assassinated by Israeli extremist for negotiating with Palestinians) with Clinton and Arafat (1993)
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