Problems In Research Bias ? Sample bias ? Wording bias (surveys) Expectancy Effect ? Change in behavior that occur because particiapants or the researcher expects them to occur ? e.g., hawthorne effect - being watched increases worker producivity Measurement Problems ? Some variables are difficult to measure ? Making inferences from behavior can sometimes be inaccurate ? Can operationally define and measure specific traits/behaviors more easily than complex variables Minimizing Problems in Research ? Use multiple sources of data whenever possible ? Collect data over time ? Keep participants "blind" to hypothesis ? Double-blind study : neither researcher nor participants know who is in control and experimental groups ? Watch for confounds in experiments ? Something other than the IV that could cause differences between group on the DV Overview of Influence on Human Behavior ? Nature/Nuture dichotomy ? Nature = genetics, biology, evolution ? Nuture = environmental, social influence ? Both are important but how much of each? Biological (Genetic) Perspective ? Genes determine predisposition ? Heritability - % of traits and behaviors that is due to genetics ? Studies on sets of twins help examine this Evolutionary Perspective ? Basic Ideas ? Organisms adapt to survive ? Individual and species survival ? Because of natural selection, "fit test" survive ? Why study evolution? ? Understanding anxiety ? Most common phobias/fears have historically included some danger ? Inherited genetic tendency to fear these? ? Understanding eating perferences ? Preference for salty, sweet, fatty foods ? When given a choice, toddlers selected a balanced diet over time ? Inherited tendency to prefer foods that promote survival ? Understanding romantic relationships ? Assume a "successful" mate is good at resprduction ? Differences for male and female members fo the species: ? Characteristics of ideal partners ? Men - strong (now money), healthy ? Women - young, healthy ? Most successful mating strategy ? Men- freguent, indiscriminant sexaul behavior; concern about partner's sexual affairs ? Women - less frequent, more "choosy" concern about partner's emotional affairs
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