Globalization: Flat or Spiky World 1 Theresa Singleton Friedman identifies 3 eras of globalization based on technologies 1. 14921800horsepower, wind, and later steam powerdriven by Europeans and Americans 2. 18002000steamships, railroads, telegraph, telephone, satellites, computersdriven European and Americans 3. 2000Internet and other innovations in communication has made it possible for individuals to interact with anyone globally resulting equal opportunities for all. A counter argument to a Flat World is the world is Spiky A spiky world is characterized by peaks and valleys. The tallest peaks are located in cities that can attract global talent; Hillsare centers of manufacture that can rise and fall quickly: some are becoming peaks others are declining. Valleysplaces that have little connection to the global economy. Haiti: A case study of the Unflat World or a valley with limited access to the global economy At least four times in its history, Haiti received global attention: 1. When it was a French colony in the 18th century, it became the richest colony in the Americas. 2. It emerged as a new nation from a slave revolt that overturned slavery, implanted black and mulatto rule, and banished the white population from the island. 3. Completion of the Panama Canal made many nations appreciate its strategic location in the Caribbean. Haitis Global Attention Recent earthquake resulted in a global response to major natural disaster which has highlighted the nations poverty. Map of the Island of Hispaniola Haiti and Dominican Republic Brief Historical Facts of Haiti Columbus landed on the island of Hispaniola in 1492, and it was first island Spain settled. French settlers began populating the western end of the Island in the mid1600s, and in 1697, Spain ceded to France the western third of Hispaniola. The French colony became known as Saint Domingue, by 1788, it became the worlds leading producer of both sugar and coffee. Caribbean Sugar Plantation Haitian Revolution 1791-1804 The expansion of French Revolution (1789-99) to Saint Domingue produced internal conflicts among the free segments of the society which escalated into fighting among themselves to gain greater autonomy from France. These internal conflicts created favorable conditions for the slave workers90% of the populationto wage a successful rebellion against the slaveholders. 1804 Haiti emerged as a new nation Consequences of the Haitian Revolution (continued) Made colonial elites aware of what could happen in settings dependant upon large numbers of coerced, nonwhite laborers; Hasten the abolition of slavery in some places and delayed abolition in others; Motivated the expansion of slavery in Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica, and Trinidad among planters who wanted to fill the void in sugar and coffee production left by the destruction of Saint Domingue Isolated Haiti politically and economically from the rest of the world. Why was Haiti isolated? Slaveholding countries, including the United States, did not want to acknowledged the countrys sovereignty. France recognized Haiti in 1825 but on the condition Haiti pay compensation to dispossessed French planters. The Vatican recognized Haiti in 1860, and the US did not recognized Haiti until 1862. After the abolition of slavery, Britain and France did not want their colonies in the Caribbean to develop relations with Haiti for fear that it would inspire independence movements Why was Haiti isolated? Racism was also a factor, and some nations did not want to extend diplomatic relations to a black nation. A degree of Haitian Isolation has continued to relatively recent times. Haiti was only accepted into CARICOMa commonwealth of Caribbean nations with a common market in 2002. Linguistically isolated, although French is an official language only about 10% of the population speak French, Haitiana creole language is spoken by everyone. Foreign Interest in Haitis strategic Position With the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914, England, Germany, and United States strengthened their relationships with Haiti to have unimpeded usage of the Windward Passage. Haiti negotiated offers to England, Germany, and the US to build a naval base on the Bay of Mle St. Nicolas adjacent to the Windward Passage, but no foreign bases materialized. Windward Passage The Windward passage is a strait 80 km (40 miles) wide between Cuba and Haiti. Haiti controls this passage which provides direct access from the Atlantic to the Caribbean Sea to the Panama Canal Bay of Mle Saint Nicolas US Occupation of Haiti 1915-1934 Because of Haitis strategic importance, the rationale for the US invasion was to curtail European and especially German, expansionism in the Caribbean. The US brought some political stability and implement infrastructural projectsroads schools, hospitals, port facilities, street lights, etc. but primarily in the urban areas Most Haitians resented US occupation, and the US presence inspired a strong nationalist movement evident not only in politics, but visual arts and literature. PostWorld War II Duvalier Regime Haiti Francois Duvalier 19571971 JeanClaude Duvalier, 1971 1986 The Duvaliers Regime Together both Francois and his son JeanClaude ruled Haiti for 30 years. They were despotic dictators who controlled the people Haiti with brute force with the help of secret police force known as the Tonton Macoute Drained the National Treasury using the money to support lavish lifestyles for themselves and their families. JeanClaude was ousted in 1986, and is alleged to have stolen 300800 million from Haiti during his regime. PostDuvalier Haiti The actions of the Duvaliers prompted many countries to suspend aid to Haiti, including the US during the Reagan administration. The years following the Duvaliers, witnessed considerable political unrest with shortterm presidencies and military takeovers; Foreign aid was restored; Haiti has been making steps toward a democratic government. Through CARICOM working with other Caribbean nations in developing a stronger economic base. Haiti Today Poorest country in Western Hemisphere United Nations Development index (an index that combines life expectancy, literacy, and GPD (Gross Domestic Product). Haiti is ranked 154 out of 177 ranked countries (the US is 8 on this ranking) Life expectancy 51 males; 56 females Literacy of 15 and over 52% Exports: coffee, oils, cocoa, manufactures Export Partners: 81.4% US, Dominican Republic 7.3%, Canada 4% Haiti Today (continued) Environmental Issues: deforestation, erosion, and shortage of portable water Natural Resources: bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower Natural hazards: in middle of hurricane belt, flooding, earthquakes, periodic droughts Further Reading: Ferguson, James. 1987. Papa Doc Baby Doc: Haiti and the Duvaliers Basil Blackwell, New York. Geggus, David, ed. 2001. The Impact of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World. University Press of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Herskovits, Melville J. 1937. Life in an Haitian Valley. Alfred A Knopf, New York. Trouillot, MichelRalph. 1995. Silencing the Past: Power and the productio
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