Anthropology 130 1/20/09‚?® Concept of Culture‚?® ‚?® - E. B. Tylor: that complex whom which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. ‚?® - Culture is knowledge‚?® - Culture determines behavior this emits the fact that culture is affected by biology and the fact that individual influence effects culture as well. Individuals within a culture become determined as exemplars. (not everyone behaves the same, so you can?t base it on individuals.)‚?®‚?® - Cultures shape our belief systems, categories we use, etc. and how we interpret those experiences. ‚?® ‚?®It provides us with what we need to know for social life. It is our primary means of adaptation. ‚?® ‚?® Attributes of Culture - Culture is learned (via enculturation) learn from our parents, media, we learn through communication, imitation, observation. - Culture is shared identities associated with certain cultural traditions, histories, etc. but this does not mean that people always think or act alike. - Culture is symbolic can involve verbal and non-verbal symbols. During enculturation we learn what meanings and values are placed on certain symbols. - Culture is an interrelated system - Culture is dynamic they can be adaptive or maladaptive. - Culture is all encompassing everyone has culture and cultural knowledge. Not a class issue, it involves every person. Mechanisms of Cultural Change - Diffusion the spread of cultural traits from one society to another?direct of non-direct. - Acculturation an exchange of cultural features between two previously separated groups. When two cultures come into contact. - Innovation leads to inventions and discoveries, new practices?it?s widely accepted among members of a culture. (ex. Electricity) - Ethnocentrism?view that one?s own culture is superior - Xenophobia?fear of things foreign - Cultural relativism?the view that all cultural beliefs, values, and practices are of equal worth and should be understood in relation to each culture?s own standards. Components of cultural Knowledge - Norms?standards of behavior - Values?beliefs about a life way (emotional charges preferences). - Symbols - Classification?categories - Worldviews?interpretations of experiences, etc. (elements of agency, individuals don?t change culture) - Human Universals: any features or institution that are found in all societies and cultures - Babies drinking milk - Smiling - Marriage (meanings and traditions will vary) - Language - Shelter Theories about why universals exist: - Humans have a similar set of needs and problems - Common biological ancestry
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