Ethnicity and Race - Ethnicity: social category of people based on perceptions of shared social experience or history - Share certain beliefs, values, habits, customs, and norms because of their common background Ethnic Groups - Language - Religion - Historical experiences - Geographic isolation (common territory) - Kinship (belief in a common ancestor) - Race - Multiple ethnic groups within a particular race or vice versa Ethnic Groups and Nation-States - May or may not have control over a territory or nation-state - Most modern nation-states are multi-ethnic - Constructions of national and transnational identities - “Imagined communities” Ethnic Interactions - Homogenization (making the same/ of the same) - Ethnic cleansing (physical elimination) - Assimilation (social absorption) - Relocation (Native Americans and reservations) ***Goal is to create similarities - Segregation (legal restraints) - Accommodation (support of ethnic/ cultural diversity within a population) Race - Socio-cultural construction - No biological basis - Arbitrary categories - Relatively recent typology - Concept of race is about 400 years old (linked to European typologies) - Used to justify inequality Racism - Discrimination between racially defined groups - Often includes ideas about purity Social Theory of Race - Culturally constructed - Linked to phenotype (so appears natural) - Social theory applied to biological selves - Categories can and do change over time - Can be transformed, created, and destroyed - Experienced in everyday life Social Racism and Institutionalized Racism - Social restrictions on marriage, interaction, etc. - Individual acts of discrimination and violence based on race - Legal restrictions on marriage and other forms of social interaction - Access to resources (healthcare, education), jobs, housing, etc. Dominant Group - Unmarked vs. Marked categories - Invisible forms of dominance (goes unchallenged/ unnoticed) - Allow those in dominant position to take privilege/ advantages - Taken-for-granted privileges associated with dominance Race: The Power of Illusion Part III - New Deal/ Social Security Act - GI Bill - Federal House Administration - Suburbia - Redlining -> areas not good for investment - Blockbusting - “White Flight” - Loans and subsides - Devaluation - Net worth - White privilege? - Structural violence?