Week 13 The Kounin Model 1st to research relationship between teaching behaviors and student behavior. Primary research technique - observation. He focused on preventing misbehavior, rather than how to correct it. Key Concepts Ripple effect: words/actions toward one spread to other, similar to contagious behavior idea. Withitness: ability to know what's going on in all areas. Momentum and smoothness: pace of lessons, closure, transitions, flow. Ripple effect of desists (remarks intended to stop misbehavior) Clarity: increased conforming behavior by all. Firmness: increased conforming behavior by all. Roughness: no improvement; upset all. Group alerting and accountability: ability to get and hold students' attention and active participation. Overlapping: ability to attend to 2 or more things at once. Satiation: boredom, disinterest, to avoid- be in tune, keep things challenging, and use a variety of methods. Ideas for alerting & accountability Attention-getting approaches: engage students in topic, ask questions, pull other students into discussion. Focus on ways to include group: all students write answer and call on one, response cards held up by all students, circulate around the room. Conducted studies with kindergarten, high school, college, summer camp students. Most effective with kindergarten. At elementary level- worked with positive and negative comments. Found that good teachers seemed to have "eyes in the back of their head". To be effective, teachers must communicate their awareness. have to attend to the instigator. Timing- "nip it in the bud" idea. Ginott Model Focused on communication. Books: Between Parent and Child; Between Parent and Teenager; Between Teacher and Child. Messages we send affect children's self esteem. Always address the situation. Overview Discipline: series of little victories. Find alternatives to punishment. Focus on teacher behavior. Socio-emotional atmosphere of classroom. Golden rule principle for theacher/student relationship. Teachers at their worst Name call and label students (slow, unmotivated, trouble maker), ask rhetorial "why" questions. give long, moralistic lectures, invade student's privacy, use sarcasm and attack student, demand cooperation, deny student feelings, serve as poor role models. Teachers at their best Address situation, invite student cooperation, accept and acknowledge feelings, confer dignity upon students, express anger appropriately (I-messages), are brief in correcting misbehavior, use appreciative praise.
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