Week 8 Terms Vilfredo Pareto, William Barton, Charles Thomson, James Earle Fraser, Zeuxis, Felix Schlag. Vilfredo Pareto was an Italian professor of economics around 1900. 1906 he was researching his native land and found 80% of the wealth was held by 20% of the people. Checked economic stats of other nations and discovered it was that same in other places. Pareto principal- 80 percent of results come from 20 percent of the efforts or causes. Betsy Ross sewed togetherthe flag that was designed by Francis Hopkinson. He sent bill to congress after the war. Liked to get as much money as possible. William Barton, head of third great seal committee. Lawyer. College of Heraldry the study of making coats of arms. 1782, shield with stripes, war and peace. 3 birds. Dove of peace, Phoenix, on mace a big club. Eagle, symbol of ancient Rome. CharlesThomson: has to change the seal, bricollage. Virtus sola invcta. Only virtue is unconquerable. And second: only liberty. Had to clean it up. Cleaned it up to the eagle and a shield and went back to E Pluribus Unum. Submitted in 1783. Needed seal for the peace treaty. Born in Ireland came the U.S as an orphan. Very smart. Chosen by Gov. of Pennsylvania to be the negotiator with Indians. Indians even adopted him in the Delaware tribe. Eagle was respected by Indians. Very American idea. Holding olive branch meaning peace, and a bundle of arrows meaning war in Indian tradition. 1913 Indian Head Nickel from 1913 to 1938 with the head of a Native American and an American Bison on reverse by James Earle Fraser. Mix of 75% copper and 25% metal nickel. Sculptor who specialized in Native Americans. Native American with spear on pony called The End of the Trail famous sculpture. 1915 San Francisco World Fair theme was Manifest Destiny and this sculpture was the centerpiece. Born in Minnesota, traveled with father on trains, visiting many Native American reservations. Most movies made in New Jersey. Many Indians worked with movies, Fraser got to talk to them. Decided to use Bricollage to use 3 Indians he knew to make his Indian Head. One was Iron Tail, an Oglalla Sioux with group who killed Custer, well known for traveling to talk to audiences about his adventures. Hair and Headress of Iron Tail. Second Indian for mouth and chin was Two Moons, a Cheyanne Chief who took part in fighting American Army from Montana. Joined Buffalo Bill's wild west show later on. Third was John Big Tree, a Senica Indian. Much prized by New York builders as they had no fear of heights. This is how Fraser met Big Tree, in 1920s and 30s became popular in movies. Used nose, eyes, and brow. CORRECTION: THe first image is of Two Moons and the second image shown in class is Iron Tail.
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