Week 7 Winning Independence 1. Declaring Independence A. Towards Sovereignty B. Lee Resolution and the 3-Part Declaration King says colonies are in open rebellion. June 1775- Battle of Bunker Hill. Washington is given command of Cont. Army. July 1775- Declaration of Causes-Olive Branch Petition. Oct. 1775- King George III's speech in Parliament. Dec. 1775- Parliament passes Prohibitory Act. Jan. 1776- Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense saying that the rule of Britain of the colonies should be over and they should branch out and be their own country. Gains wide circulation throughout the colonies. Mar. 1776- Silas Deane sent to France, May 1776- Congress tells colonies to form state gov'ts. June 7th, 1776- Richard Henry Lee's Resoultion, free independent states. 3 part resolution: declare independence, articles of confederation, foreign alliances. July 1776- Declaration of Independence, July-August- Draft Articles of Confederation. Sept. 1776- "Model Treaty". 2. The Military Challenge A. Losing New York (August-November 1776) B. Continental Counter-Attack (December 1776-January 1777) C. Washington's "Fabian" Strategy D. Professionalization of the Continental Army Needed to repel the coming British armies. June 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill, British took Charleston but suffered heavy casualties. Replaced Gage with William Howe and Richard Howe to work together to recooperate and get ready to take New York. New York City was the harbor and had the Hudson Bay, British knew if they could take a large city with the best harbor it would serve as a base of operations to defeat the colonists. August 1776 British arrived and than took troops across the bay, landing in Brooklyn, and attacking various armies to take New York. Washington made a mistake in this battle that he wouldn't make again by engaging his armies directly into battle with the British. A retreat helped save the Continental Army and gave them time to recover. Washington found out his army wasn't as good as he thought, lacked discipline, numbers, and a navy. Began as a very good year for the Americans but the second half of the year had things beginning to unravel. By the end of the year Britain held sway, looked like they were winning the war. Washington on Christmas night in 1776 crossed the Delaware River and ambushed the British. These wins pumped up moral for the colonists. Continental Army in Transition from 1777. After Trenton-Princeton, Washington adopts "Fabian Strategy"- avoids large battles; practices strategic withdrawal. After Trenton-Princeton, "Rage Militaire" is over, Congress and States will offer bounties for enlistment; Continental Army looks more like a European army with enlisted men drawn largely from the poor and lower class. At winter encampment at Valley Forge, Penn., Prussian Baron von Steuben brings European-style discipline and close-order to the Continental Army. Must continue to work together because the war was now declared. Britain was the undisputed superpower and colonists knew they needed help to defeat the British. Would need allies, ammunition, and more armies. Franklin acts as diplomat and negotiator in France and Paris for the colonists. Treaty of Alliance helps the French and Americans to trade out in the open and have France, Dutch, Americans, and Spanish all fighting against the British. Trap General Cornwallis in Yorktown in 1781. Diplomacy and American Reorganization help factor into this victory. 3. The French-American Alliance A. Vergennes' Grand Strategy B. Franklin and Deane's American Vision C. Treaty of Alliance (February 1778) D. Failure of the Carlisle Peace Commission Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes, Foreign Minister of France. Wants to help the American colonists to gain independence. French wants to be in a secret alliance with the Americans. French in 1776-77 in secret covert operations are giving Americans money, goods, and arms, but can't do this openly. Have to wait to openly be an alliance with America until after it declares independence. America's Revolutionary Diplomats: John Adams, Silas Deane, and Benjamin Franklin. Negotiations with France. 4. The Southern Crucible A. John Laurens and the Limits of the American Nation B. Nathaneal Greene vs. Charles Cornwallis C. Victory at Yorktown (October 1781) D. The Two Lost Years * Key Terms Battle of Trenton (December 1776) George Washington Valley Forge Baron von Steuben Henry Knox Alexander Hamilton Comte de Vergennes Benjamin Franklin Silas Deane William Eden Battle of Yorktown Treaty of Paris (1782-83)
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