a classifying category that is always in the middle is religion and the super natural
What is empirical culuture?
science; development body of knowledge of the physical world leading to it?s control
What is magic?
individual manipulation of the supernatural for immediate effect or personal gain.
What are four characteristics that religion and magic have in common?
1. supernatural 2. ritual 3. faith 4. three similar functions a. explanatory; give meaning to life b. reduce anxiety c. control individual behavior
What is the definition of religion?
collective, public, organized set of beliefs that supernatural agents are responsible for reality and quality of life.
What are five ways that religion and magic are different?
1. magic is more individualistic, religion is more communal 2. magic is for more immediate results, magic is a tool used cross culturally 3. magic can be practiced anywhere, anytime 4. anyone can do it, in religion, you tend to need a specialist 5. magic can be for good or bad, while religion is for good
What are the 3 types of magic?
imitative, contagious, and exuvial
What is a witch?
supernatural powers, mostly evil, just psychic spells, cannot be learned
What is a sorcerer?
anyone can be a sorcerer, and they use potions and things that aren?t psychic? all about manipulating the supernatural
What is a diviner?
uses tools to tell the will of the supernatural
What is a seerer?
doesn?t use tools to tell the will of the supernatural, they just know Shows a difference between gift, talent and the use of techniques to explain the supernatural
everything has a spirit, everything is alive and animated. This sort of religion is prominent in hunter/gather cultures. This is adaptive for this society because it helps them to not over exploit their resources.
the belief that there is one generalized, impersonal force over everything, resembles karma.
What are the four levels of spiritual behavior?
Personal: a vision quest; typically of the Plains Indians, used as a rite of passage Shamanistic: use a shaman, shamans are cross culturally found at tribal levels, may be hired or assigned Communal: everyone has a role Ecclesiastical: a clergy, a professional class of specialists that do the work for you
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