Cooking Prep Key Terms Baste: Blanch: Boiling: Braising: Broiling: Caramelization: Carryover Cooking: Coagulation: Combination Cooking Methods: Conduction: Convection: Cooking Media: Deep Frying: Dry heat cooking methods: Evaporation: Gelatinization: Grilling Hydrogenation: Infrared Cooking: Mechanical Convection: Melt: Moist heat Cooking Methods Natural Convection: Pan-frying Radiation: Recovery Time: Sauteing: Stewing: Combination cooking method Stir-frying: I. Heat Tranfer a. Conduction: moves from outside in (heat) Roasting turkey v. lasagna, turkey takes longer b. Convection: water/air moving around natural vs. mechanical: mechanical has fan (turn temp down c. Radiation: conduction and convection occuring grilling/griddle II. Effects of Heat a. Protein (starch/sugar...water....most food 80% water) i. Coagulation: firming up ->change in texture ii Maillard Reaction chemical reaction food protein seen in bread and meat (browning of protein) b. Starches/Sugars i. Gelatinization (starches) absorbing water ->swells ->add flour to chicken ii. Caramelization: browning of sugar, seen in cookies c. Water: too much evaporation -> too dry d. Fats: fats will melt (solid fat pie crust, butter going to melt, flakey is desired III. Cooking Methods a. Dry Heat with Air i. Broiling: 1. heat at top 2. radiant energy 3. food tender before cooking ii. Grilling 1. open grate 2. radient energy from bottom 3. food tender before cooking iii. Roasting and baking: oven temp: roasting lower, baking higher 1. Baste coating with fat/liquid 2. Carryover Cooking the continuation of cooking conduction still happening after removed from the heat source juice redistributes itself b. Dry heat Fat i. Saute: high heat short cooking time limited fat tender foods ii. Pan fry: a little lower temp than sauteing more fat/oil than sauteing iii. Deep fry: totally submerging food item in fat some kind of coating/batter c. Moist Heat - water involved i. poach: under 185 degrees F, bubbles on bottom of pan, fragile foods ii. Simmer: 185 degrees-205 F, bubbles come to surface (sauces evaporate off water) thickening sauce iii. Boil: 212 degrees F, much more agitated iv. Steam: veggies d. Combination i. braising 2 steps brown food (malliard reaction-optional) put in vessel in sides, water1/3 way up, covered ii. stewing don't need lid more liquid-flavorful liquid
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