Week 5 Terms Palimpsest, Robert Mills, Obelisk, Pius IX, Robert Smithson, Guinea, James Renwick, James McMillan, Daniel Burnham, Charles McKim, Frederick Law Olmsted Jr., Augustus St. Gaudens, Henry Bacon, Daniel Chester French, John Russel Pope, Monticello, Andrew Mellon, Paul Mellon, I.M. (Ieoh Ming) Pei Palimpsest ?layered over time. When parchment was scarce they medieval scribes would take an old book or sheet and scrap off what was written before. The reusing and collaboration of more than one thing. Robert Mills won the contest to build the Washington Monument. Influenced by Egyptian structures and architectures. Simple, thick, sound. Egyptian revival. Set up by Egyptian temples to bring down the power of Rah, the Sun God, like a lightening rod. Big tall, squared off column called an Obelisk surrounded by a colonnade. In 1848 work began. On the axis of the capitol and presidents house. 60 feet high, tallest structure of the time. Stopped work for about 20 years because of the Pope in Rome. Blocks were sent in to help cover the cost from all over. Pope Pius IX sent a block, but many people were anit-catholic, especially the "know-nothings". They took control and congress didn't want to offend anyone so they refused to provide any funds. 1870's they cleared out and by 1884 they continued on again. 555 feet tall and was the tallest for 5 years until the Eiffel Tower which is about 200 meters higher. Finishing touch was the cap stone made out of 100 ounces of aluminum. Robert Smithson, English scientist son of a Duke of Northumberland but was a bastard son. None of the legitimate sons survived and he got all the propery. Devoted his life to science and minerals. Smithsonite, mineral of zinc oxide, named after him. Died in 1829 left a will and left all his property to his nephew Henry. But in the event of Henry dying without any children of his own, whatever property is left with go to the U.S.A to found at Washington under the name of the Smithsonian institution a place of learning. 1835 Henry dyed. 1838 property converted to cash, gold coins called Guinea, 100,000 with head of Queen Victoria and Coat of Arms on the other side. Named Guinea because they were made in a small English island called Guinea. 500,000 converted to U.S. dollars. Smithsonian institution built by James Renwick, Red English Castle. Norman style of the early middle ages. This style was called the medieval revival. Meant to be a library, museum, and offices of research. Train tracks built on west side. Mall was cluttered up by many buildings. By 1890s people thought maybe they should go back to that idea. Congress decided to appoint a commission of experts to decide what to do and re-beautify and revitalize its classical ideas. Senator from Michigan James McMillan was put in charge. Was a military tycoon. Gathered together 4 experts to decide what to do. Two architects respected at the time: Daniel Burnham, Charles McKim, and a landscape architect Frederick Law Olmstead Jr who took after his father. The last member was Augustus St. Gaudens who was America's most respected sculptor and monument maker. In 1901 they issued their report after going to Europe. In order to make Washington beautiful there should be 5 provisions. One restore the mall to its orignal open grassy space. Get rid of buildings and train station and move it to the northeast which is now where the Union train station is. But let the Washington monument stay as well as the Smithsonian Institute. Second extend the mall to the west. Three make the mall like a cross shape by also extending to the south. Four add two new monuments to close off the west and south end. One to Lincoln and one to Jefferson. Five establish a fine arts commitee for Washington to oversee and approve new buildings in the mall area. Congress approved. Henry Bacon won the competition to design the Lincoln memorial. 36 columns around the building, meant to represent the 36 states at the time of the Civil War. Finished in 1922. Peristyle means columns all the way around in Greek, 450 BC is the original Peristyle building which is the temple to Athena. Statue of the god or goddess in this case it was Lincoln. The statue was designed by Daniel Chester French. Imitating the Ancient Greek Parthenon and was classical. Jefferson was designed by John Russel Pope and finished in 1935. Had a dome, like the Pantheon. Similar to Jefferson?s house called Monticello.
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