Week 6 Terms James Watt, Frederick Hart, Glenna Goodacre, Pieta, Sacagawea, THomas Rogers, Randy Teton, Robert Scot, Susan B. Anthony, Frank Gasparro. James Watt, was an element and stake holder in the design of the monument for the Vietnam Vet monument. There are two James Watts, one was an Irish man who helped with technology of the industrial revolution. This James Watt came from a Western State, appointed by Reagan as the Secretary of the Interior. Had to oversee the national park system. Refused to sign the permit to let the monument be built, said that it had to be approved by the right wing thinkers. Scruggs and Maya Lin met with them and changed the monument to additionally have a Flagpole with the American Flag, and a realistic, traditional statue honoring the soldiers of the war. Watt gave political pressure to get those changes in to keep Reagan and poltical right wingers happy. Competition went out to see who would be the scultpor of the soldier statue. Frederick Hart was chosen and made 3 service men monument which is 3 guys dressed as typical grunt soldiers in the late 60's and early 70's in bronze. 200 feet or so from the monument. They are about 8 or 9 feet high and look like they are walking towards or looking at the monument. The technique used was the lost wax process from the Ancient greeks. Start with a clay statue with the exact size and all the details. Cover this with a thin layer of wax, and eighth or quarter inch. Than make another clay statue outside this and than another wax layer. Put a hole in the top and bottom and pour bronze in which is a mix of copper and tin. Scrape away the clay layers. End up with a hollow bronze statue like a shell but is the exact same shape and detail as the first clay statue. Polished and keeps it from getting tarnished and shines with a goldish gold, but in modern times we allow it to oxidize and become a warm brown outer coating. The warm brown color is called a patina. This layer protects the bronze from further tarnishing and become a protective outer coating. Takes about a year or two to make a lifesize statue with the lost wax method. Took around a year and was ready and delivered in 1984. Monument itself was finished in 1982. Three service men represented various services. Mix of the marines, army, special services, navy airmen. Mix of racial diversity, caucasian, african american, and some think the third is a hispanic, or an indian, or asian american. High quality, you can see veins and various details. Hart also chemically treated the bronze so the patina would have various colors for the skin, vests, and other details. All have the same army boot. A special jungle boot made just for vietnam with leather and mesh to prevent jungle rot. Many people resented that Maya Lin had to put up with the statue and called it sentimental kitsch which means its not really art but just fluff added to make people feel better. Many people than argued that women helped and served in the war. Eight womens names on the wall. VVMF was paying for all of this. Decided that Glenna Goodacre would make the Vietnam Women's Memorial from Santa Fe, New Mexico, famous for her statues of women and children. Finished in 1993 with three women with the lost wax method. Waiting for a evacuation helicopter, picking up a helmet, and a woman holding a wounded man. Most famous sculpture of a women holding a dying man is the Pieta by Michelangelo in 1498 in St. Peters Dome in Rome. Means sorrow or pity in Italian. Virgin Mary holding the dead christ. Hanging right arm is directly copied from the Pieta.
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