Philosophy 205 November 19 and 21, 2008 The Apology discussion Socrates: Native of Athens Born 478, died in 348 Death by force- ingested hemlock Doesn’t reach actual conclusions- sometimes shows opposites What are the charges against Socrates? Socrates claims that there are other charges they should be concerned about- Rumors citizens are predisposed to a bad opinion he worries that even if he can show his charges false- he will not be able to change their minds... These are the Unofficial Charges 1. Being concerned with things above the sky and below the earth (basically meaning he spends time thinking about things that are nonsensical) 2.Using the weaker argument to defeat stronger ( twisting words) Official Charges 1. Corrupting young 2. Doesn’t believe in gods of city, but in other spiritual thing How does he defend himself? Trying to explain why he does what he does Explains where rumors come from Story- Chaerephon asks oracle Delphi if anyone was wiser than Socrates Socrates tests Oracle’s claim Concludes: Oracle right because Socrates’ wisdom is due to his own recognition of his ignorance. How does this help Socrates? He points out that he doesn’t use the “weaker argument” rather correct and logic reasoning. He is not trying to twist words but only to reveal truth. His story shoes that he is questioning others on important values like justice, piety, etc- not nonsensical things He is answering the question, “How did these rumors get started?”- The “Wise” he was interrogating dismissed Socrates when he proved them wrong so they tried to discredit his name. How does Socrates approach the Official Charges? In his exchange with Meletus, we see his argumentation laid out… Against the charge of corrupting the youth… 1- Who improves the young? M-Everyone except Socrates (nonsensical) 2- Deliberate or unwillful corruption? M-Deliberate A1- Living among wicked people is harmful A2- No one knowingly chooses to be harmed. IC- No one chooses to live among wicked people Corrupting the youth makes them wicked Deliberately corrupting the youth is to choose to live among wicked people No one would deliberately corrupt the youth Socrates wouldn’t deliberately corrupt the youth If Socrates is unwillingly doing so, Meletus ought to approach him one on one to advise him and guide him away from this Against the charge of worshiping gods other than those of the city Socrates asks Meletus to define: M- No gods at all, S is an atheist, but believes in new spiritual things. Argument.. A1-If a person believes in spiritual things then he believes in spirits A2- S believes in spiritual things IC- S believes in spirits A- Spirits are either gods or children of them If a person believes in the children of gods, they must believe in the gods If spirits are the children of gods, then Socrates believes in the gods Socrates believes in gods. Officials and people are mad at Socrates because he proved them wrong and showed their ignorance. In his trial he does this again… why? “The unexamined life is not worth living.” Socrates goes on to show that he would rather die than live a life without philosophy and his lifestyle of curiosity. Jury votes Socrates Guilty- 280-221. Punishment: M proposes Death, S proposes they feed him at the Peritoneum. Jury sends Socrates to death with an overwhelming vote.