12/8/17 1 Chapter 14 Preventative, Rehabilitative, and Restorative Approaches to Delinquency Prevention • The most effective include screening and early intervention practices and programs, early education approaches, and after-care programs and mentoring. • Screening and Early Intervention are used in different settings, including schools, community programs, and juvenile justice settings. • Risk factors and tendencies toward deviance can be identified. 12/8/17 2 Nurse-Family Partnerships • Involved nurse visits to the homes of a subset of low-income teens who became pregnant before the age of 19 and agreed to participate in the program. • Nurses made monthly visits to the young mothers’ homes during their pregnancies and the first two years of their children’s lives. Early Education • Preschool enrichment programs have been found to be effective means of helping children develop in a positive manner and avoid involvement in delinquency. • When preschool programs aimed at 3- and 4-year-olds have an element of collaboration with parents as well, they are shown to be the most effective. • The Perry Preschool in Ypsilanti, Michigan, is one of the most studied examples of this sort of education program. It was started in 1962 to include a randomly selected sample of low-income black youth who scored low on standardized IQ tests. 12/8/17 3 School- or Community-Based Education and Skill-Based Programs • Used to sway youth toward prosocial, nondelinquent behavior and away from antisocial and delinquent behaviors. • Many of them teach the same skills that are taught in many rehabilitation programs. • LifeSkills Training (LST) • Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) • Project Toward No Drug Abuse (TND) After-School Programs (ASP) • After-school programs (ASPs) address the well-known finding that delinquency is most apt to be a pastime of children who aren’t busy doing something else with their time. • Youth engage in social behaviors, learning activities, and/or recreational activities and have less unsupervised time. • Use of college-educated staff, especially males, help decrease delinquency. 12/8/17 4 Mentoring Programs • Matched up in schools or communities with adults who volunteer to mentor them. • Often results in emotional bonding between the pair. • It serves as a prosocial reinforcement that may increase self- esteem and confidence and help youth succeed in conventional ways. • Community-based mentoring programs have been found to be more effective than school-based programs. Rehabilitation • Rehabilitation programs in juvenile detention facilities, or those that take place in conjunction with conditions of diversion and/or probation in the community, are concerned with changing juveniles’ behavior after they have already engaged in an act of delinquency. • Factors important to the creation of effective rehabilitation programs include: the involvement of mental health personnel in program delivery; in-depth programming that lasts a sufficient amount of time to be useful; and behavior- or skill-based content. 12/8/17 5 Therapeutic Approaches • Most successful means of discouraging young people from reengaging in delinquency and other undesirable behaviors. • Some models effectively prevent recidivism: • Functional Family Therapy (FFT) • Multisystemic Therapy (MST) • Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) Restorative Justice Approaches • Restorative justice, or restoration, is based on the philosophy that good relations between people and their communities should be central to our focus on dealing with crimes and delinquency. • Restorative justice is both a theory and a practice advocating the involvement of offenders, victims, and community members in dealing with the harm of a crime or delinquent act. • Many restorative justice practices are informed by the concept of reintegrative shaming. 12/8/17 6 Victim-Offender Mediation • Victim Offender Reconciliation Programs (VORP), or Victim Offender Mediation (VOM), are among the most popular restorative justice practices used to address acts of delinquency. • Often this agreement involves some form of restitution, or paying the victim back for the offending either with money or in terms of volunteer labor or community service • Mediation is often used as a diversionary measure within the criminal justice system and is thought to save time and money—precious commodities in an overloaded system. Family Group Conferencing • Variation on the VOM structure. • This may include the victim(s), the offender(s) and their families, police officers, a youth advocate, the occasional social worker, the youth justice coordinator, the individual who facilitates the conference, and invited community members. • All members must agree to the terms of the agreement made in the conference. • Diversionary options are preferred to formal processing of the cases and custodial sentences. • The family group conferences are used for youth who are placed both in and out of custody before a disposition. 12/8/17 7 Restorative Justice Circles • Include restorative circles, peacemaking circles, healing circles, and sentencing circles. • In a circle, people who are meeting together for some sort of dialogue sit in a circular formation. • This design is purposive and is based on the concept that circular arrangement of people allows for a sharing of power and a more equitable space. Restorative Justice and Institutional Change • Ensure concerns are addressed effectively. • Is appropriate translation provided for offenders and their families? • Do mediators carry cultural assumptions that might bias the process from the beginning? • Is training in cultural competence provided and followed? • Are sexist, racist, and/or homophobic assumptions or accusations permitted? • When young people victimize adults, can mediations actually be on a level playing field? Or is it impossible because of the large power differential between the two parties due to their ages? 12/8/17 8 Future of juvenile justice • The juvenile court is and has been shaped by social and political factors • This will not change • Neither will the social and economic causes of delinquency • Offenders today experience the same social conditions as offenders in the past The Critical Role of Larger Social Forces in Preventing Delinquency • Economic forces are the most important • 3rd most prosperous country in the world, but • Highest child poverty rate among affluent countries • 25% of the world’s prison population • Next to last among affluent countries in economic resources devoted to government social programs • Any solutions to delinquency must consider economic and social forces if we want them to work 12/8/17 9 Future of the juvenile court • Neither the rehabilitative ideal nor the social control approach have been effective • Social control and social welfare cannot be handled by a single institution (i.e., the juvenile court) • Justice policies of social control often perpetuate the inequalities already present in society • Poverty, social class, and racial biases shape public attitudes and juvenile justice policies Future of the juvenile court • Most states have de-emphasized rehabilitation and emphasized public protection and safety (statutory changes, mandatory sentences, etc.) • Continued underfunding means the justice system will continue to face challenges in available resources 12/8/17 10 Limitations of JJS in preventing delinquency • The justice system is always “reactive”, not “proactive” or preventive • Prevention has to start at an early age, before the onset of more serious behavior Delinquency prevention and juvenile justice for the 21st century • Proactive approach that addresses unequal educational opportunities, unemployment, poverty, and racism • Long-range, comprehensive programs that involve multiple agencies • Offer opportunities for at-risk youth to experience positive alternatives and productive social/economic roles 12/8/17 11 Delinquency prevention and juvenile justice for the 21st century • Perhaps we should consider delinquency to be a “public health problem” • Public health: to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization) • Why not crime and delinquency? Examples of public health- criminology research findings • More serious offending in adolescence leads worse physical health in young adulthood • Childhood victimization is associated with worse perceptions of physical and mental health, substance use, and homelessness in adulthood • Homicide may act like an infectious disease, spreading from one area of a city to multiple areas 12/8/17 12 Delinquency prevention and juvenile justice for the 21st century • Perhaps we should consider delinquency to be a “public health problem” • Public health: to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization) • Why not crime and delinquency? • Emphasizes primary prevention: prevention taking place before the onset of disease or injury • Views violence as a threat to community health rather than community order OJJDP Comprehensive Strategy • Based on 5 principles • Strengthening families • Supporting core social institutions • Promoting delinquency prevention • Intervening immediately and effectively • Identifying and controlling serious, violent, and chronic offenders • https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/guide.pdf 12/8/17 13 A Comprehensive Approach: The Models for Change Program • Coordination between multiple entities and a comprehensive overhaul of individual states’ justice models is needed. • Changes are driven by the fiscal reality. • Change are based on the specific principles. • Bring juvenile justice advocates, government officials, lawyers, educators, families, and community leaders together. • Focus on mental health services, juvenile indigent defense, and racial and ethnic disparities. The Future of Delinquency Prevention • Fewer youth in the United States than at any time since 1975 are locked up in juvenile detention institutions. • Has been a 41% decrease in the rate of youth confinement since 1995. • U.S. youth are significantly more likely to be held in an institution after committing an act of juvenile delinquency than are children in many other countries. 12/8/17 14 The Future of Delinquency Prevention • Youth of color and low-income youth are still disproportionately confined. • Use of comprehensive approaches is increasing. • Restorative justice approaches to juvenile delinquency prevention and rehabilitation are increasingly popular.