Early Miocene Hominoids Earliest date to the Miocene (23-5 m.y.a.) Hominoids Proto ? Apes in Europe Proconsul group Common ancestor of apes Lived in Africa Important time for apes Bipedal? Oreopithecus lived 7 to 9 mya Eurasian Apes Eurasian Apes Gigantopithecus Largest primate 10 feet tall 1,200 pounds Suggested to be still alive Miocene Missing Links? Humans and African apes share common ancestors have different ancestors missing links? Humans not descended from gorillas or chimps Miocene Missing Link ~13 million y.a. Potential common ancestor of living great apes (Hominids) Pierolapithecus Catalaunicus Discovered in Spain Origins of the Human Species Lemurs and Lorises Hominoids Anthropoids Missing Links Old World Monkeys and Apes Primates Two important kinds Terrestrial monkeys Most closely related to people Primatology Study of nonhuman primates Primate Tendencies primates share primitive arboreal traits Grasping Stereoscopic sight Tactile senses Brain/body size ratio Parental investment Sociability Primate suborders 1) Prosimians Primate order has two suborders Primate suborders 2) Anthropoids Monkeys and Apes Primate order has two suborders Anthropoid Infraorders 1) New World monkeys Brachiate Prehensile tail Lack full color vision Anthropoid suborder has two infraorders Anthropoid Infraorders 1) Old World monkeys and apes Catarrhines Full color vision Anthropoid suborder has two infraorders CatarrhinesOld World Monkeys and Apes Significant distinctions exist Arboreal much smaller little sexual dimorphism Terrestrial larger greater sexual dimorphism Both terrestrial and arboreal Apes 3 Hominoid families 1) Hylobatids (gibbons) 2) Pongids (orangutangs) 3) Hominids (gorillas, chimps, humans) Two superfamilies within infraorder of Catarrhines Old World Monkeys Hominoidea - Apes Apes Gibbons Apes Orangutans Apes Gorillas Mostly terrestrial 3 subspecies Large (400 pounds) Social organization Mountain Gorillas Western Gorillas Apes Chimpanzees Two subspecies 1) Common Social organization Apes Chimpanzees Two subspecies 1) Common 2) Bonobos Social organization Little conflict Apes Humans One subspecies Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) Mostly terrestrial Social organization Humans and non-Human Primates Similarities Learning Behavioral not genetic Tool usage Humans and non-Human Primates Similarities Predation and Hunting Aggression Humans and non-Human Primates Differences Sharing and Cooperation Mating and Kinship
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