Cebidae (ex spider monkey) About 30 species, Eat fruit & leaves, insects, Most are Quadrupeds, Prehensile tails (White Faced Capuchin Cebus capucinus Dentition ,diet, locomotion ,social group , dimorphism, special traits): 126.96.36.199, omnivorous, quadrupedal, multimale/multifemale, male is larger, prehensile and very intelligent Guatamalan Howler Dentition ,diet, locomotion ,social group , dimorphism, special traits: 188.8.131.52, leaves, fruit, quadrupedal, multimale/ multifemale, male is larger, prehensile tail and hyoid is expanded into a resonating chamber Catarhine: Old World Monkeys (Cercopithecidae), Apes (Hominoidea), Humans (Homininae) catarhine traits: 184.108.40.206 dental formula, Nose sticks out, Larger body size OWM vs. NWM: Shape of Nose, Average size, Tails, dental formula Dental formula of old world monkeys: 220.127.116.11 Dental formula of new world monkeys: 18.104.22.168 Old world monkeys: very diverse, widely distributed, visible estrus, omnivorous- cheek pouches Olive Baboon Papio anabis habitat, locomotion, social group, dimorphism, special traits: Savannah, quadropedal, mulit-male/muti-female, male (x2) and canines, pouch eaters Colobinae: Leaf-eating monkeys?complex stomach Black and White Colobus ,habitat, dentation, diet, locomotion, social group, dimorphism, special traits: Rainforest, 22.214.171.124, leaves, quadrupedal, polygynous, male (2x), cow-like stomach Superfamily Hominoidea: Gibbons (Hylobates) ?lesser apes, Orangutans (Pongo) ? greater apes, Chimpanzees (Pan)- greater apes, Gorillas (Gorilla)- greater apes, Humans (Homo)-humans Hominoid Traits: larger body size, absence of visible tail, shorter trunk, modified shoulder joint, more complex behaviors & brains, Y-5 molar, longer infant development Lesser Apes: Gibbons & siamangs, Smallest, Brachiators, Eat fruit (some leaves, flowers, & insects), Family social unit (male involvement), Highly territorial Concolor (White-Cheeked) GibbonHylobates concolor: Dentition 126.96.36.199, as a whole the most numerically successful of the apes Greater Apes: Orangutans, Close to extinction, Slow, cautious climbers, Solitary, Eat fruit & some leaves, bark, insects, meat Orangutan: Dentition ? 188.8.131.52, Diet ? frugivorous, Locomotion -4-handed, solitary, build nests, rape Gorillas: Largest primate, Lowland & mountain, Knuckle-walkers, Live in family group ?Harem?, Herbivores, Close to extinction , infanticide, polyganous Chimpanzees: Equatorial Africa, Knuckle-walking (although they can do brachiation and bipedalism, Highly excitable, active & noisy, Omnivorous, Hunt, tool users Bonobos: The Congo, Endangered, Omnivorous, Lack of aggression - related to sexuality, homosexual bonding rituals Humans: Family: Homininae, Primate heritage, Large, complex brains, Language, Habitual bipedality Our present-day biology suggest we are: a tropical mammal. Cultural adaptations have allowed us: to move elsewhere human senses: Hear, smell, vision much like other anthropoids. Habitually bipedal: is a defining characteristic of all hominins. Human Bones and muscles of back, pelvis, legs, and feet are: modified for bipedal locomotion. Human Legs are more or less muscular than arms: more(opposite of other apes). Reproduction in humans: Longer period of postnatal dependency, Longest time to maturity, Long lifespan, Substantial post-reproduction period in females What has become our primary adaptive strategy: culture
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