Intro to AIDS/HIV AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome New and infectious Worldwide, the majority of HIV+ are heterosexual non-drug users. HIV ? human immunodeficiency virus (attacks the immune system, notably the helper T cells and macrophages). HIV+ can be asymptomatic for years. AIDS ? Risk Factors Three main routes for infection Sexual activity involving the exchange of body fluids. Sharing contaminated needles. Birth by infected mother. Incidence is increasing particularly among heterosexuals. From HIV Infection to AIDS: Four Stages of Progression Mild symptoms like those of other diseases (e.g., soar throat, fever, rash, headache). Lasts 1-8 weeks. Latent period for as long as 10 years with no or few symptoms. AIDS related complex ? cluster of symptoms (e.g., swollen glands, loss of appetite, fever, fatigue, night sweats, persistent diarrhea). Severe immune impairment ? multiple opportunist infections (e.g., lungs, gastrointestinal tract). What leads to these changes? Gradual decrease in T4 (CD4), helper t-cells over many years. In early stages virus ?hides? in lymph tissue and multiplies. # cell virus Count Time #viruses # CD4 Age, Gender, and Socio-Cultural Factors Highest rates among 20-45 year olds. 2-3 times higher in men. Disease progresses more rapidly among older people. Death rate higher for Blacks. Highest rates of infection in Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America. Psychosocial Impact Others fear and blame them. Rejected by others. Concerned about who in their social network they can tell. Most adapt well, but those who don?t have more rapid disease progression. AIDS Treatment Options Hope for eventual vaccine ? some success in producing immunity in monkeys. Protease inhibitors ? New class of drugs that interfere with maturity of HIV cells and slows progression of disease. Don?t know the long term effects. They have troubling side-effects are expensive, and typically have to be taken in very tight schedule. AIDS Treatment Options - Nutrition Wasting syndrome Extreme weight loss, muscle loss as well as fat. Important to keep up strength but tend to loose appetite and have persistent diarrhea. AIDS Prevention Education is not enough ? continue high levels of risk behaviours. Need new intervention strategies. Risk may be linked to certain personality characteristics. Dr. Stouts lecture
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