10/6/10? 1? Memory II Psychology 1000 (4) Julianne Ludlam, Ph.D. A few things ??Quiz 2: Available by the end of the day TODAY. 12 points. ?? Answer the last question CORRECTLY to get your points. ?? Closes Tuesday, Oct. 12 at 3:30 pm (class time) ?? Check to make sure your grade is recorded. ??Exam 2: Thursday, October 15 2 TA Office Hours ??Marc: email@example.com ?? Wednesdays, 12-2 pm. Or by appointment. ?? 103 Noyes Hall (via 100 Noyes) ??Go tomorrow! Review! Get your questions answered! 3 10/6/10? 2? Today Memory II 1.? Organization of Long-Term Memory ?? Schemas, Retrieval Cues 2.? Brain Processes in Memory 3.? When Memory Fails ?? Seven Sins, Amnesia, False Memories 4.? Improving Memories 4 Organization of LTM Schema: ?? Mental framework centering on a specific theme, that helps us to organize social information. ?? Organize our knowledge and assumptions about something and are used for interpreting and processing information. ?? Ex: ?Stairway? schema 5 Organization of LTM ??Schemas influence our memory ?? If something contradicts our schema, it may be encoded incorrectly or distorted, or it may not be encoded at all. ??Schemas are culture-bound. ?? Cultural variations in schemas produce differences in what and how information is remembered. 6 10/6/10? 3? Organization of LTM ??Schemas that are held for a group of people can be thought of as stereotypes ?? Cognitively efficient, but problematic ??Schemas are powerful ?? Often remain unchanged, despite contradictory information. ?? Stereotypes can distort memory 7 Organization of LTM ?? Which is easier? 1.? Recall ?? Name the Seven Dwarfs OR 2.? Recognition ?? Using the picture, name the Seven Dwarfs 8 Organization of LTM ??Recognition tasks contain retrieval cues ?? Retrieval cues: Reminders that trigger memories ?? Words or pictures ?? Sounds or songs ?? Locations or places ?? Even smells or moods 9 10/6/10? 4? Organization of LTM ?? Encoding Specificity: any stimulus encoded along with an experience can later trigger one?s memory of that experience ?? Context-Dependent Memory: recall situation is similar to encoding situation ?? State-Dependent Memory: recall state of mind is similar to encoding state of mind 10 Brain Processes in Memory ??Structures: ?? Hippocampus and temporal lobe ?? Frontal lobes ??Processes ?? Epinephrine and glucose ?? Long-term Potentiation 11 Brain Processes in Memory ?? Study of memory has a long history. ?? Equipotentiality: memory is distributed throughout the brain. (Lashley) ?? Early idea, not quite correct. 12 10/6/10? 5? Brain Processes in Memory Case of H.M. ?? Parts of temporal lobes and hippocampi removed. ?? H.M. became unable to form new memories. ?? Showed that hippocampus in the temporal lobe was key for memory 13 Brain Processes in Memory ??Medial Temporal Lobes, including Hippocampus, responsible for consolidation of explicit, declarative memories ??Consolidation: converting short-term memories into permanent storage 14 Brain Processes in Memory ?? Hippocampus also involved in spatial memory ?? London taxi drivers with larger right hippocampus 15 10/6/10? 6? Brain Processes in Memory ??Frontal lobes are involved in several types of memory. ?? Activation of neurons in the frontal lobe is associated with deeper meaning ?? Important for the coordination of information and working memory 16 Brain Processes in Memory ??Epinephrine: Hormone affecting neurochemistry ?? Naturally released under stress or fear ?? Enhances memory ??Triggers release of glucose, which fuels the brain. ?? Eat breakfast before an exam! 17 Brain Processes in Memory Long-Term Potentiation ??The strengthening of the synaptic connection so that postsynaptic neurons are more easily activated ?? Candidate for neural basis of learning and for the movement of memories from STM to LTM. 18 10/6/10? 7? When Memory Fails And why it needs to fail sometimes Memory Failures ??Failures of memory can be grouped into three major categories: 1.? Forgetting ?? Sins of transience, absentmindedness, blocking ?? Amnesia 2.? Distortion ?? Sins of misattribution, suggestibility, bias ?? Eyewitness testimony and false memories 3.? Remembering too much ?? Sin of persistence 20 Forgetting ??Transience ? the pattern of forgetting things over time. ??Much forgetting appears to due to interference of other information ?? Proactive: old information interferes with learning new ?? Retroactive: new information interferes with remembering old 21 10/6/10? 8? Forgetting Due to Interference 22 Forgetting ??Absentmindedness: shallow encoding causes memory failure ?? Lapse in attention 23 Forgetting ??Blocking: failure to retrieve information available in memory. ?? The ?tip-of-the-tongue? phenomenon ?? Temporary problem retrieving the right word, usually from interference from a similar word 24 10/6/10? 9? Forgetting Amnesia: deficit in long-term memory ?? Both injury and disease can result in amnesia ??Two basic types of amnesia: ?? Retrograde amnesia: the inability to recall past memories ?? Anterograde amnesia: the inability to form new memories 25 Movie Examples of Amnesia Retrograde Amnesia Anterograde Amnesia 26 Amnesia ? Clive Wearing 27 10/6/10? 10? Memory Distortion ??Memory Misattribution: Assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source ?? AKA ?Source Misattribution? ?? A person can misremember the source of a memory 28 Memory Distortion ??Memory Distortion means that people are bad eyewitnesses. ?? Particularly when trying to identify persons of other ethnicities ?? Eyewitness confidence is high (whether they are right or wrong), which makes them convincing 29 Memory Distortion ??Suggestibility: tendency to incorporate misleading information into our own memories. ?? Misinformation can lead to false memories ?? Elizabeth Loftus 30 10/6/10? 11? False Memories ??Childhood Amnesia: general lack of memory for our early years. ?? Current biological theory: immature frontal lobes cause childhood amnesia. ?? Many events we remember from early childhood are constructed from information learned later in life. 31 False Memories ???Repressed Memories?: subject of heated debate ??Some psychotherapists claim that long- repressed memories of traumatic events can resurface ??Evidence suggests that some therapeutic techniques can result in false repressed memories 32 Loftus ? False Memories 33 10/6/10? 12? Memory Distortion ??Memory Bias: ?? People?s memories change over time to maintain consistency between their past memories, their current knowledge, and their current attitudes 34 Remembering Too Much ??Persistence: Intrusive recollection of memories we wish we could forget. ??Flashbulb Memories: Vivid and enduring memories, usually for events that are dramatic or emotional ?? Emotional response may modulate the memory?s strength and affect its accuracy ?? Emotional memories are not recalled any better than non-emotional memories 35 Improving Memory ??Mnemonics = strategies for learning ??ROY G BIV 36 10/6/10? 13? Improving Memory ??Practice ??Elaborate the Material ??Use Verbal Mnemonics ??Use Visual Imagery ??Get Adequate Sleep ??Eat Breakfast 37 Next: ??Quiz 2 available by end of day today ?? Complete it for 12 points in the class ?? Closes by Tuesday, class time. ??Exam 2 on Thursday, next week. 38 LUDLAM Lecture 13 - Memory II.pptx
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