9/21/10 1:09 PM PNB Notes Recurring Themes Homeostasis Maintain a stable internal environment Biological energy use ( ATP ) Structure-Function Relationships Molecular interaction Compartmentalization Physical properties of cells, tissues, and organs Communication Chemical and electrical signals To understand a disease, one needs to comprehend the underlying ANATOMY and PHYSIOLOGY Retinitis Pigmentosa ( NOT TEST) Rods and cones mix up together in eye The archaebacterial halorhodopsin is produced in the remaining cone photoreceptor cells (GREEN) Two categories of Anatomy Gross Anatomy ? structures that can be seen with unaided eye Surface- superficial structures/deep structures Microscopic Anatomy- ( histology) ? structures that are too small to be seen with unaided eye 10x ? 1,000,000x cytology- cyto ? study of cells histology ? study of tissues Functional Anatomy ? Molecular- Cellular Circuits ; Developmental Regeneration Anatomical Terms Based on Latin and Greek roots Descriptive, precise, relative Language of medicine Precise language of Anatomy Based on proper terminology, - needs standard universal position to compare all structures Characteristics of the anatomic position Standing upright Feet parallel and on the floor Head level and looking forward Arms at side of body Palms facing forward and thumbs pointing away from body Directions ? LOOK UP SLIDE Sections and Planes Coronal ( frontal) plane- divides the body into anterior ( front) and posterior ( back ) parts Transverse ( Horizontal) plane - divides into superior ( upper) and inferior ( lower) parts Midsaggital ? left and right haves Regional Anatomy Axial ? head neck trunk, ( the vertical axis of body) Appendicular- upper and lower limbs/appendages Body Cavities Know Figure 1.9 Thoracis cavity, abdominopelvic cavity, cranal and vertebral cavity VENTRAL CAVITY MEMBRANES SLIDE Organs for support and protection Integumentary system Protect tissue Regulate body temperature House sensory receptors Skeletal System Provide support Provide attachment for muscles Produce blood cells store inorganic salts Muscular system Movement Maintain posture Produce body heat Nervous System Receive and interpret sensory information Triggersz. Muscles and glands Endpocrine System Control metabolic activities Lymphatic Ststem Return interstitial fluid to blood Carry certain absorbed food molecules Defend body against infection Respratory Stsem Intake and optput of air exchange gases between air and bood Digestive System Digests food and cheimicsls Expel wastes Urinary System Removes waste from blood Maintain water and electrolyte balance? Store and transport water DYLANS NOTES Control Pathways: Feedback Loops Negative feedback Initial stimulus -> response? Negative feedback Prevents sudden sever changes in the body Counteracts bodily disruption Most common type of feedback loops Examples: body temperature, blood pressure, and glucose regulation Positive feedback : not homeostatic The response amplifies the stimulus Read Baby delivery thingy PF Increases the actions of the body Produces more instability in the body Are short-lived Controls only infrequent events that do not require continuous adjustments Cycle does not terminate by itself QUESTION: Initial steps of blood clotting, coagulation Positive 9/21/10 1:09 PM 9/21/10 1:09 PM
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