Types of Confections 1. Sugar-based confections -Hard candy, gums and jellies, marshmallows, caramels, and tableted candy 2. Chocolate and coatings -?True? chocolate and confectionary coatings Key Ingredients: Water -Water content starts out high, but drops as the water is boiled off -Initially, water is a solvent for other ingredients (sugars, protein, acid) -Water does not mix with fat or oil -Emulsifier needed to stabilize a product containing both water and lipid Sweeteners -Most sweeteners lend texture to products -Types: 1. Sugar ? sucrose, lactose, dextrose 2. Corn syrup or HFCS ? corn starch enzymatically processed to a mixture of glucose/fructose) 3. Invert sugar ? sucrose converted to glucose and fructose) 4. Honey ? natural, distinct flavor 5. Artificial sweeteners ? sugar alcohols, synthetics Protein & Fat -Protein: -Provides structure and texture (marshmallows) and Maillard browning (chocolate and caramels) -Protein can be in the form of milk protein, vegetable protein, or gelatin -Fat: -Provides texture and melting profile (chocolate) -Fat can be in the form of milk fat or vegetable fat Minor Ingredients 1. Stabilizers ? provide structure and texture (starch and pectin) or serve as emulsifiers (lecithin), holding lipid and water mixtures together 2. Flavoring ? fruit flavors or organic acids 3. Colorants ? may be natural, or artificial dyes or lakes Hard Candy: Making Jolly Ranchers -Mix -Sucrose -Corn syrup ( heat ( (water released) ( cool and form -Water -Flavor -Key features: -Rapid concentration to 2-3% water -Rapid cooling to a sugar ?glass? Fondants: Peppermint Patties -Mix: -Sucrose -Corn syrup ( heat ( (water released) ( cooling with mixing -Water -Flavor -Key features -Rapid concentration to 10% water -Agitation while cooling to promote formation of small crystals The Strange Case of Chocolate Covered Cherries -How do they add the liquid center? -Has to do with fondant ? liquid center of a chocolate covered cherry starts out as a fondant with the enzyme invertase added after the sugar syrup has cooled -As the product is held between manufacture and marketing, the invertase breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructose, forming the sugar syrup Marshmallow: A Protein Foam -Mix: -Sucrose -Corn syrup ( heat and cool ( add gelatin ( whip -Key features: -Add gelatin to warm (not hot) sugar syrup -Whipping introduces air so that a protein foam forms Caramel and Fudge -Key ingredients in the manufacture of caramel and fudge are sugar (sucrose and corn syrup), milk, fat, and lecithin -What allows for color formation? -Reducing sugar + milk protein = Maillard reaction products (brown) -What stabilizes the fat and water? -Lecithin (emulsifier The Making of Chocolate: At the Plantation -Ripe cacao pods are harvested by hand -Seeds (cacao beans) are removed and fermented through a sequence of microbial reactions -Fermentation is critical for flavor development -Fermented beans are dried and ready for shipment At the Factory -Roasting reduces moisture content, develops a rich brown color (Maillard browning) and characteristic aroma -Nibs are ground to release chocolate liquor -Chocolate liquor is pressed to release pure cocoa butter and cocoa powder Making Eating Chocolate -Chocolate liquor, cocoa butter, sugar, and maybe milk solids are blended together -The mixture is refined to reduce particle size -Conching for flavor development 0The final step before molding is tempering to control bloom More on Chocolate -Types of chocolate available for purchase vary based on their sugar content and range from dark, to bittersweet, semi-sweet, sweet -Milk chocolate has added milk solids -White chocolate contains cocoa butter but lacks cocoa solids -Pastel-colored confections ? not chocolate, but confectionary coatings Confectionery Coatings -In the manufacture of confectionary coatings, cocoa butter is replaced with vegetable fat -The steps of refining, conching, and tempering are still important in the manufacture of compound coatings -Lower cost fat source -Increased stability and functionality Quiz Which of the following terms is correctly associated? Refining: smaller particle size Conching: preventing fat bloom Tempering: flavor development Enrobing: blending flavors Which association is not true of confectionary ingredients? Water: solvent for other ingredients Sweeteners: sucrose and starch Protein: texture and browning Fat: melting profile Which statement is correct regarding chocolate? At the plantation, cocoa beans are fermented in a controlled reaction involving bacteria, yeast and mold Roasting of cocoa beans of similar sizes produces a superior product Nibs are ground to produce a chocolate liquor which is high in alcohol Cocoa butter is high in cholesterol PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 2
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