the scientific study of the minimal units that make up language -how they are produced (Articulatory) -how they are perceived (Auditory) -their physical properties (Acoustic)
Articulation: CONSONANTS classification
speech sounds produced with a NARROWING in the vocal tract Defined by their: 1) voicing 2) PLACE 3) manner
Closed together and vibrating -only a small amount of air is let through
-Air flows freely, passage is open
Place of articulation
where in the throat is the sound produced 1. Bilabial 2. Labiodental 3. Interdental 4. Alveolar 5. Alveo Palatal 6. Velar 7. Glottal
produced with a closure or narrowing involving both lips ‘bi-’ means ‘two’ ‘labial’ means ‘lips’
[p, b m, w]
for some speakers, the voiceless w. The voiceless [w] (the one with the little circle underneath it) is only for SOME engl speakers (which)
Lower lip at upper teeth (labio= lip, dental=teeth) ONLY: [f] and [v]
Tongue tip between teeth English has two, represented orthographically with the same letter sequence ‘th’. Thing (theta symbol) There (other circle symbol thing) 'eth'
tongue tip at alveolar ridge (the bony ridge on the roof of your mouth just behind your upper teeth) -most popular place in ENGL lang t, d, n, s, z, l, r (the upside down r, such as "butter, water, bottle"
tongue at/NEAR hard PALATE -->the bony plate that constitutes the ROOF of the mouth [j] is the one true palatal, but the "esh" sound in a word like "ship"; the "ezh" sound in the middle of a word like "measure", the "ch" sound in a word like "church", and its voiced counterpart, the sound at the beginning and ending of the word "judge".
produced with the back of the tongue against the soft palate or "velum". This is the fleshy area just behind your hard palate and just before the little dangly thing in the back of your mouth. The three velar consonants of English are [k] as in "king", [g] as in "gang" and the velar nasal (n with dangle) (called "engma") which is the final sound in both "king" and "gang"
produced at the LARYNX The two glottal sounds of English are [h] and the so-called glottal stop [?] looking one
HOW is the air articulated to make the noise? Includes: 1. stop 2. fricative 3. affricate 4. nasal 5. liquid 6. glide 7. flap
Full obstruction in oral cavity
bilabial stops: [p] and [b] alveolar stops: [t] and [d] velar stops: [k] and [g] glottal: uh-oh (upside down question mark thing)
Partial obstruction with turbulent/noisy air -hissy noises, elongate-able 'fric' is NOT, but fricativvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvve is!
includes: labiodental [f] and [v] interdental theta and eth, alveolar [s] and [z], alveopalatal eshand, ezh, and the glottal fricative [h]
Stop followed by fricative
There are only two affricates in English: the voiceless alveopalatal ‘ch’ (t+curve thing) sound as in "church" and the VOICED initial and final sound in "judge". 'dg' (d+3)
Air passes through nasal cavity with velum open/lowered
involve constriction of the vocal tract, but not enough it block it or cause turbulence!! lateral: LLLLLLLLeaf!! lat=l retroflex: RRRRRRed! Retro=r (it is the upside down r sign!)
made with only a slight closure of the articulators, so that if the vocal tract were any more open, the result would be a vowel sound (sound a LOT like vowels!) W j (YUUUU! sound) "yawn" w w/ circle underneath (voiceless w, WHHHich)
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