Biophysical Development: Significant changes in Gross motor and Fine motor skills. Biophysical Toddlerhood: 16-30 months Preschool: from this period to 6th birthday Growth is slow Toddling baby: top-heavy, long body, diaper near floor. 2nd year: legs grow faster than trunk Abdominal musculature: "potbelly" appearance disappears as muscles strengthen Feet appear flat From 1st birthday to 6th: height from 30 inches to approximately 46 inches By age 4 preschooler- double birth length After 2nd birthday, rate of weight gain is an average of 5 pounds yearly up to 9-10th birthday Gender difference in heights are minimal Growth due to development of muscular skeletal system Skeletal System: Ossification slows, yet cavities, after infancy Infancy: 4 years: child is long shafted bone contains red marrow capable of blood cell production. 4-7 years: active marrow gradually replaced by fatty tissue. Red marrow left in skull, bones, etc Leg and feet grow more rapidly than trunk Appropriate footwear needed (socks, booties and shoes), extend at least 1/2 inches beyond toes 1/4 between edges from the little toe to the lateral edge of the shoe Socks and shoe size should be checked every 1-2 months, between the ages of 2-6 years, both feet need to be measured. Shoes must be changed very 3 months or so Vital to walk properly Motor Skills: Develop by maturation process and learning experiences, motivation, practice, and guidance Tremendous social input. Gross motor 2 Y: jump in place, walk up and down stairs while holding on, sit in toy bike while moving by propelling with their feet, throw large ball with two hands, kick ball 3Y : Potentially pedal a tricycle, go up and down stairs using alternating feet, walk straight line with heel-toe pattern, throw ball with one hand 4 Y: Jump well, catch small object, hop forward on one foot, use playground equipment 5 Y: Jump rope, skip using alternating feet, walk down steps carrying an object, catch a small ball with two hands Fine Motor skills: Drink from a cup without spilling too much, build tower of 6-7 blocks, line up blocks to form a train, turn door knob. Use blunt scissors, help with simple household chores, string beads onto long shoe string, begin to make a circle. Cut on a curved line with scissors, button small buttons, copy a square, dress independently May be able to print his/her own name, cut out simple shapes using scissors, put his/her toys away, coping a triangle, open door using a key Neurological System: Gradual maturation accounts for behavior changes observed Changes in brain activity EEG Increase in attention span, memory, and motor skills from 2-6 years Neural control more integrated, more independent Myelinization: By 2 years: corticospinal, spinal tract is myelinated Gain control over elimination and to refine movement of lower extremities By 4 years- refined hand and finger movement Maturation of fibers Connect cerebellum to cerebral cortex Further refinement occurs with more myelinization and cognitive development Eyes: Functional ambiyopia (lazy eye) avoids double vision Cause is unknown Not corrected= loss of vision in that eye Sign of eye problems: Constant rubbing Blinking excessively Squinting to see Irritated to play game Shuts one eye/covers eye to focus Tearing excessive Tilts head for observation Thrust head forward to focus Gastrointestinal System (GI): 2 years: 20 teeth= deciduous End of preschool years, deciduous teeth begin to fall out Bladder: 2-2.5 years average child responds to experience and respond to feeling of bladder fullness Child's ability to wake up from a nap Can remain dry following a nap Child may be ready for toilet training Child needs cognitive development/psychosocial readiness for toilet training Elimination: First develop bowel control, don?t leave kid on toilet too long, try again later Second develop bladder control, first day control then night Enuresis- bedwetting -nighttime control longer to achieve Up to 6 years still have accidents Factors: how developed, how large bladder is How deep their sleep is Worry/ distress Strong evidence of genetic predispostion Strategies: Limiting fluid in the evening Child gets out of bed to go to the bathroom Night light Nutrition Recommended intake: toddler- 1300 calories a day preschooler- 1800 calories a day 800 mg of calcium a day Vitamin supplements- optional fluoride to prevent tooth decay Pattern of Eating: Food jags- love something, tomorrow hates Physiological anorexia Amount- 1 tablespoon of each solid food per year of age and beyond Need snacks- meals, hold them over for the main meal Time- needs 30-40 minute meals, eats slower Rituals- milk form specific cup, food on same plate Health and Socio-Economic States (SES): Preschoolers: mid- high SES among healthiest humans alive Fewer major illnesses Poverty is a health problem About 30% of families in the US have poor access to health care. These children have 25-50% more minor illnesses and are more malnourished--at risk Most Curiosity and new experiences Piaget: Substage VI: sensory motor intelligence (18-24 months) For sensorimotor intelligence for representational intelligence Can play out behaviors in his mind Can find an object hidden by invisible displacement Child searches for hidden object Clearly knows objects are permanent and exist even if can't be seen Preoperational Stage: 2-6-7 years Uses mental symbols: symbolic thought/thinking One object stand for another Ex. Milk & white Relationships fostered through greater influence 2 substages: Preconceptional thought- relevant to toddlers Intuitive thought Intuitive Thinking: emerges as child realizes words represent and object Begins rationale for object Immature thinking, bias 2-4-7 years Internally learning to represent events and reshaping events Early Preoperational Thought: 7 conceptual schemes- obstacles to adult logic Egocentrism- focuses on how world looks to me Doesn?t question his views Subject to meaning Prevents child from understanding another person's point of view Centration- child centers on one aspect of an experience Ignore/neglects other aspects of the situation Has difficulty following directions, gotta give one command at a time Focus on states- child doesn?t understand how things transform from one state to another Doesn?t understand what happens in between Illogical thought: lack of consistent direction in thinking No need to justify an action or give rationale Irreversibility- not able to reverse thought or follow line to beginning Doesn't understand death If take toy apart, can't remember sequence for putting toys back together Get's frustrated with thinking Transductive reasoning- specific to specific reasoning No generalizations Regardless of contradictions that exist Moves from particular to particular Transition between sensory motor or reasoning to adult thinking Actions rather than abstractions Cognitive Uniqueness of Early Childhood: Classification- learns to match things, sort, emerging and chain/ line up several object in relation to one another Animism- inert objects are alive Inert objects have a consciousness Ex. "Rock hurt me" Time- relate to predictable activities of the day Then weekly- by 5 years knows days of the week. Magical Thought- observe adults making things happen Things happen through magic Wishes and thoughts makes things happen and control the world Fantasy- mental play Important for child Adopt to tensions, less anxiety, lessen fears Positive in child's development Fairy tales: Help in quest for self identity Develop intellect, clarify emotions Help deal with frustration Guideline for behavior Help teach value of culture Hansel and Gretel- ingenuity and independence Preoperational: Beliefs: Santa Claus, Easter Bunny Child accepts them with enthusiasm Complete acceptance of mystical creatures Untruthful fantasies: Notorious for white lies Little regard for truth Not malicious Share what they want to be Stem from day dreaming Peaks at 4-5 years, decreases in cognitive advances Justifying events for adults Problem distinguishing fantasy for reality Magical thought prominent Sensitive to behavior of adults Don't overreact/underract Daydreaming: mental fantasies Child more powerful In dreams= hero= martyr Anticipate and solve real life problems Imaginary playmates: 3-6 years Created by child with above average intelligence Created by child has special meaning, replaces lost loved ones/ friends Takes blame for misdemeanors Fears: alerting one to danger Adult fears can be communicated to preschooler Hallmarks: 2 years- fear loud, sadder noises 3-4 years- fear of animals 4-5 years- fear of dark 6 years- fear of dark and being lost Demonstrate fears in different ways Regressing behavior- thumb sucking and wetting pants Cruel towards others- not normal, warrants investigation Development of Cognitive Skills: Attention- harness and focus attention Important for learning Memory- selective attention can be placed to long term memory At 4, words substitute for actions/feelings Play- crucial in early childhood years for cognitive development Role is to play Control and refine Approach and solves problems Accidents: safety a big issue, accidents= death Non-fatal accidents in home 90% preventative Curiosity overrides sense Ex. Drowning, choking, cuts, fractures, burns, poisons, animal bites, insect bites, poisonous plants Psychosocial Development: Independence- major theme of toddlerhood Lessons of give and take- learned preschool years Toddler Years: Mahler's separation individuation process continues [1st differentiation (7-8 months) 2nd practicing] 3rd subphase- individuation (rapprochement) Reality of himself Autonomy setting in ( 15-24 months) Can function without caregiver 4th subphase- consolidation (24-36 months) Mahler postulated: independent locomotion Child aware of physical separateness from mother Takes pleasure in separation, but still feels vulnerable Still needs to "refuel" Between 18-24 months rapprochement Struggle peaks= crisis - child wants total control, yet still feels separation anxiety Later crisis resolved Feels and finds optimal distance Erikson Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt: Major task- toddlerhood- control "Me do." "No." Competence If many restriction and criticisms, negativity= doubt one's self and ability Shame follows, doubt is rooted in personality With separate will- conflict increases Allowed independence This stage decisive capacity or balance of love and hate, cooperative and willfulness, freedom of self expression or its suppression Living with a Toddler: Expression of autonomy: Negativism: most dramatic expression in a variety of ways by saying no to requests, kicking, biting, hitting, throwing, temper tantrums, holding breath, etc. So universal the period is referred to as "Terrible twos" Ritualism: important, predict and control events, insists on uniformity and exactness of events. Same plate you gotta have 3 stories, gives it up when ready Distress if rituals not followed. Ambivalence- struggle for autonomy, something attractive and repulsive all at once Learn to hold in and let go ( toys and excretion) Separation anxiety: renewed sensitivity with parents whereabouts Peaks again Gotta tell child she's leaving if it causes distress, which gives child ability to control and predict events Psychosocial Development Preschool Years: Mahler's 4th subphase: Consolidation Separation well established, individualism continue Beginning of search for individuality or self-identity Emotional object constancy Consolidation: 24-36 months Stable sense of self boundaries Emotional constancy Gender identity Individuation proceeds rapidly Subphase is open-ended (never ending) Personal style (leader/follower Erikson's Initiative vs. Guilt: Function independently Makes events happen Initiative in play and social activity Assume responsibility for self If attempts are ignored anxiety and guilt crisis, self confidence lowered feels dumb, clumsy Initiative must be suportive Early Identity: Preschool years: "1st adolescence" 1st identity formation Gender identity: Interest in body function, body configuration, and sex "Where did that come from?" Learns cultural concepts of gender Sex play occurs by assuming social play roles Often times little girl may investigate boy's body while playing doctor Learn public self and private self Talking about sex is normal and should be done Ask parents questions Should be taught the correct names for body parts Factors Affecting Psychosocial Development Significant relationship, family is crucial Relationship with siblings, sibling rivalries= can't communicate well Relationship with grandparents Relationship with age-mates, best friends appear Relationship with pets Development of Self-Control: Learning self-control= critical task, use constructively, control behavior Frustration, aggression, manipulation of behavior, self-control learned from parents, limit setting Nature of Play Crucial, dominates preschool years One approach, attitudes and dispositions of child himself Different Characteristics of Play Play intrinsically motivated because they enjoy it Process oriented rather than product oriented Creative and non-limited Implicit rules- discovered by observing the play Spontaneous self imitating Free distress- no emotional distress always playing Theoretical Approaches to Play Analyzes different aspects of play Psychoanalytical Theory: emphasizes emotional and social importance of play Examples: Gives child opportunity to gain mastery over problems Allows use of fantasy Gain satisfaction of what they want Release of upsetting feeling Gain increased power over environment Learning Theory: Means by which children learn adult skills and social roles through play Learns through experiences observation setting goals Cognitive Theory: Four kinds of play: sequential parallel with cognitive development Functional- simple repetitive movements (sensorimotor period) first 2 years of life Constructive play- manipulation of objects to build with, construct something (building blocks) Pretend/fantasty play- dramatic play (1st seen in toddlers) Games with rules- follow 5-6 years old Social Development Harten explanation of play concerning social involvement Unoccupied play- momentary interest, but uninvolved- infancy year Solitary Play- toddlerhood, plays with his/her toys alone Onlooker Behavior- early preschool years observes play activity of others w/o entering activity Parallel Play-2 or more children play with toys that are similar but still alone right next to each other with little interaction Association Play- middle to late preschool years Cooperation Play- late preschool year, highly cooperative, play full interaction
Want to see the other 10 page(s) in Life Span Midterm Notes- Early Childhood?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!