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-bureaucracy is in essence a control technology was -first established by Weber. His defining characteristics: impersonal orientation of structure to the information that it processes, usually identified as “cases,” with a predetermined formal set of rules governing all decisions and responses.
-clear-cut division of labor and definition of responsibilities, hierarchical authority, and specialized decision and communication functions
-A large, complex organization composed of appointed officials
-”how middle-class people, periodicals, and social institutions of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries constantly linked commodity ownership and display to possibilities for social enhancement”
-Spending money on luxury goods to publicly display economic power
-Established in 1978 partly due to the 1976 Copyright Act, the CCC is a body that represents a consortium of publishers.
-They grant individuals and institutions permission to reproduce copyrighted materials on the condition that they pay royalties to the copyright holder
-In The Net Delusion, Evgeny Morozov comes up with "Cyber-utopianism": "a naive believe in the emancipatory nature of online communication
-a process that promised to combine the best of print, telephone, and television together into a computerized “multimedia” resource
- “Drummers” traveling salesmen—effective in attracting trade, but aroused strong criticisms from many directions. They sometimes would drive prices down so low that the profits might completely vanish, because their commission was based on how many they sold-not the price they sold them for- traveling salesman who went from town to town selling their products.
-"Combination of mass production and mass consumption to create nat'l prosperity"
- A system of assembly-line manufacturing and mass production named after Henry Ford, founder of the Ford Motor Company and developer of the Model T car.
-enhancements to a country such as canals and roads
-”They [the nation’s founders] realized that building a nation required the circulation of information, the movement of printed materials from across a nation to the smallest town in the nation’s interior.”
-transportation was vital to communication, so internal improvements were therefore vital to the expansion of communication
-relates to spanish-english biliteracy (teaching jobs generated few spin-off activities or products from which opportunity for literacy learning could be sponsored)
-worth of literacy brings renewed possibility to the democratic hope in public education that more equal distribution of literate skill can moderate the effects of inequality of wealth and civil rights
-other argument: advantage of literate skill is helping to aggravate social inequality (righ get richer, literate get more literate)
- The industry of Spanish-English biliteracy was primarily confined to nonprofit social service agencies and government programs that dealt with the social effects of poverty and dislocation
-Dora Lopez( main character) talks about it in relation to social status. “ S-E biliteracy fluctuated dramatically dramatically as she moved between the private and public spheres. Spanish had high status in her family context, where it served as the virtual medium of communication between older and younger generations”
-vast, something of a catch all: cities and metropolitan areas w/i it have grown for disparate reasons. L.A.=mecca for media and entertainment, San Jose and Austin=significant innovative high-tech industries, Houston=hub for energy production, Nashville=low-cost music recording and production; Charlotte=center for cost-effective banking and low-end finance
-Successfully battled antitrust proceedings in court, controlled most of the oil production in Pennsylvania
-Oil pipeline network had become a pervasive influence on the American economy and on the daily life of Americans
-Standard Oil was pioneering financial, management, and legal techniques for operating a business that had to control a huge physical network, spread out over several states
- “Codification of knowledge into abstract symbols that can be translated into many different and varied circumstances” (p 30)
- use of technology allows for “controlled experiments”...”allow us to plot “alternative futures” thus greatly increasing the extent to which we can choose and control matters that affect our lives.” (p 30)
"Whole systems meant to function reliably, invisibly, and perpetually in order to enable other social, political, and perpetually, in order to enable other social, political, and economic activities"
We only notice them when they break down.
Communication technologies are a good example, just like transportation.
- The ALA’s critical reviews of books for all ages.
- monthly guide to recently published books, each entry included decimal classification, cataloging info, lengthy annotations, many starred to identitfy books “recommended for small libraries, or for first purchase” → saved librarians a lot of work
- emerged from discontent among ALA members
-"Twenty-nine-year-old Google marketing executive originally from Cairo, employed his business and design skills to construct a Facebook protest community based on the slogan 'We Are All Khaled Said," where people could join an online protest of the case." He emerged as a leader of the Egyptian Revolution
· National Security Agency
· Extensive domestic surveillance via phone, internet, data mining through Google etc
· We know very little about what the NSA uses their findings for but they have claimed to expose a number of terrorist plots.
· After 9/11 surveillance increased.
· The director of NSA lied about keeping records of Americans.
o Can help expose terroristsà important to security
o Monitors American citizens private phone calls and personal life.
· A hypothetical data storage and retrieval system that was developed by Vannevar Bush.
· The idea of the Memex was to make finding information more accessible and to create opportunities for knowledge advancements.
· Supposed to store all of an individual’s books, records, and communications through hypertext links.
· It is able to relate to the owners needs, which makes it more efficient than ever.
o What today’s computers accomplish
o Made information more accessible and efficient.
· An American computer specialist and former CIA employee and NSA contractor who revealed several of the National Security Agency’s extensive domestic surveillance programs.
· The documents appeared in The Guardian and The Washington Post and made clear that the NSA keeps track of phone calls, communication and thoughts through data mining in Google searches.
· He said he wanted to leak these documents to inform the public
· He has been called a hero and a traitor and is currently taking asylum in Russia.
o he revealed that the NSA has been intruding on personal and private lives and reaching much farther than we had previously known.
· The process of paying attention to multiple things at once, but at a superficial level.
o this is significant in relation to young kids’ adoption of digital media. This has become a problem in schools because kids are texting throughout the day which has led to a big discussion on whether kids should be able to bring their phones to school or not.
· A set of data that describes and gives information about other data.
o Used in reference to how the NSA collected telephone metadataà the numbers called and calling and other details. NSA used AT&T facility to collect metadata on individuals.
· Originated before the Internet.
· Focused on networking together different computers known as IMPs that connected to a larger host computer.
· Was funded by ARPA (advanced research projects agency)
· One of the worlds first operational packet switching networks.
· The stated motive for Arpanet was an economic one.
· It was to network ARPA’s computer systems together, the users of each computer would be able to use the facilities of any other computer on the network.
o Connected the nation’s top research facilities together to provide instant communication and transfer of information across the country.
o First concrete proposal for establishing a geographically distributed network of computers.
o Specialized facilities and would thus be available to all
o It would be possible to spread the computing load over many geographically separated cities.
· Internet regulation practices on the Internet.
· Because China is a communist country, they have strict regulation on the Internet and the government censors’ specific topics so that they citizens of the country are unaware of have a distorted view of many issues in the world and their own country.
· In China there is no transparency or public accountability when it comes to how information networks are shaped, operated and regulated.
o Hides information from citizens
o Used as a means to control citizens.
· A video game designed by the U.S Army for recruiting purposes.
· Consisted of both training and first person shooter exercises.
o it took a popular aspect of modern culture and transformed it into a marketing tool for military service.
o Used computer game technology to provide the public a virtual solider experience that was engaging, informative and entertaining.
· NED (Nintendo) worked only with their device and approved games.
· Encourages a desire to be entertained no matter where we are or what we are doing. It is widespread
o It changed where we consume media. In schools, student’s attention in the class is divided by the topics of the class and the consumption of their fast entertainment.
o It raises questions about overall learning environment in college classrooms today.
o Mobile technologies enhance the degree of intensity of which students attention wanders today.
· Russian word for “openness” and became synonymous for loosening controls on the Russian press and discussion of legal reform.
· China is in a period of cyber glasnot: people use the internet to address injustice of the local and personal level, expanding the public discourse and enabling people to speak out on a greater range of issues, while at the same time no meaningful changes have been made to the political system.
o People use the Internet to address injustices and allow people to speak out on a greater range of issues.
· In economics it is the proposition that technological progress that increases the efficiency with which a resource is used tends to increase (rather than decrease) the rate of consumption of that resource.
· Technological improvements that increase the efficiency of coal use led to increased consumption of coal in a wide range of industries.
o Increase for resource demand causes increase of resource use.
· Is an observation made by Gordon Moore that computer processing power roughly doubles every two years
o This law is now used in the semiconductor industry to guide long-term planning and to set targets for research and development.
o The capabilities of many digital electronic devices are strongly linked to Moore’s law: processing, speed, memory capacity, sensors and even number and size of pixels in digital cameras.
o Dramatically enhanced the impact of digital electronics in nearly every segment of the world economy.
o The law describes a driving force of technological and social changed in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
· Refers to a genre of games in which characters jump, spring, fly or move through a series of levels, or “platforms” as they battle enemies and collect items.
· It can also have a meaning of a game that is closely related to a specific console that later supports future success.
· Successful genre for Nintendo
· Examples for Nintendo include: Mario, Donkey Kong, Zelda
o Type of game that led to Nintendo’s success.
· Is the term given to the list of results that appears to be ranked in order of relevance.
· Comprehensiveness derives from the huge abundance (largely useless) results Google offers us for a search.
· Precision is the notion that amongst the millions of results Google offers, they narrow it down to 10 results that appear on the first page.
o The number of clicks a result receives boots its rank on the search results, whether or not it is a “better” result.
o This makes users believe that Google rankings are honest expressions of probable importance and relevance.
· Skills, abilities, and traits that pertain to personality, attitude and behavior rather than to formal or technical knowledge.
· B.ecame increasingly important for new entry-level occupations due to the routinization of skills and the need for quick learning that comes with rapid technological advancement.
o Described as the most important skills for an entry-level employee by many employers across many industries specifically IT
· Refers to the faith we as users have in Google (and other search engines) corporate ethics.
· We inherently believe that the algorithmic judgment as to which links are appropriate for us are the most relevant to us.
· Reinforced by the fact that most people who use Google do so in an unsophisticated way and do not believe they can effectively search the Internet on their own which reflect a faith in Google.
o Demonstrates the dependency and trust we put into the Internet and specific search engines even though we don’t really know if they are the best information sources.
· Techniques to increase brand awareness through self-replicating viral processes.
· May take the form of hyperlinks, video clips, interactive Flash games, eBooks, images, text messages, email messages, web pages etc.
· Viral marketers goal is to create viral messages that appeal to individuals that will share their message to social networking sites so their friends and follower will do the same.
o Increases brand awareness through making their image or brand go viral through networks of people ultimately contributing to the success of the spread of a message.
· Sidebar list of hyperlinks pointing to the blogs that a particular blogger reads.
· They remain unchanged and cause in-text citations to be permanent.
o These hyperlinks serve as a way for the blogger to identify with his or her friends, community and interests.
· Suggests that the growing efficiency of machines has weakened the link between energy use and economic activity.
· Electronic wasteàdiscarded electronic devices
· Electronic “trash” hazardous to the environment, fills up landfills and contains toxins, but also contains goodly amounts of silver, gold and other valuable metals that are highly efficient conductors of electricity.
· Some recycling companies sell e waste to brokers who ship it to the developing world where environmental enforcement is weak.
o Can cause damage to the environment and human health especially in developing countries that do not have enforced pollution laws.
· Groups that use technology before they are widespread.
· Asia and Europe were early adopters of mobile phones.
· American did not adopt mobile phones as quickly.
· The increase of mobile phone usage in America was due to reasons such as pricing decreases and complicated family schedules.
· Significance: …
· Created by French Philosopher Denis Diderot
· The first great encyclopedia in the 18th century.
· Was a product of the Age of Enlightenment, which tried to bring about reform by giving power in the form of knowledge to the people and has a political nature to it.
o Make the world’s store of knowledge available to the ordinary person.
· The management of a product after it becomes “waste.”
· Management can include collection, reuse, recycling or disposal.
· When equipment no longer satisfies its initial users needs, we should not assume that it is in poor operational condition or has become obsolete. Because it may be possible to extend its life through use or the same purposes by other users.
o Recovers and recycles old equipment so it can be reused for other people or other purposes.
· These include computer support specialists. Computer and ATM repairers, broadcast technicians and network and computer systems administrators.
· Made up 33% off all computer related jobs in 2003
· Emerged from the evolution of job requirements and the appearance of new technology.
· Significance:Made up all computer related jobs, which became necessary with the appearance of new technology
· Refers to the energy efficiency (after coal, petroleum, nuclear power, and renewables)
o It as seen as a cost-free tool for accelerating the transition to a green-energy economy.
· Sequence of characters serving as an address to a unique location on the Internet and is a way to help others navigate an information space in a way that they themselves would.
· Connects people socially, economically and politically
o Allows us to understand the context of relationships, predictability and patterns in hyperlinks reveal different communities.
o Helps information spread through the blogosphere and helps it change and grow.
o Connects people socially, economically and politically
· Expensive, individual, high status, high-value labor (or “knowledge work”) produced by elite universities and circulated among transnational corporations.
· Collectively organized work outside formal organization.
o The work that is needed to create and maintain our information technologies.
o Includes software engineers, Wikipedia (crowds) contributors, and factory workers.
· Creation of an immersive cultural universe that surrounds a brand name
· Advertising technique where a specific lifestyle is targeted.
o Some interactive technologies are created for the purpose of advertising. For example: The army used the Americans Army game as a way to recruit people into the army through the game.
· Eye-opening demonstrations of the limits of automation in many seemingly labor-less systems.
· A need for users to learn and apply sophisticated query strategies and the influence of algorithms to produce complex and sometimes contradictory results such as Google’s Page Rank
· Someone’s ability to analyze, evaluate and create messages in a wide variety of media modes, genres and formats.
o Used to understand the messages in literature but shows no media outlet can deliver an information experience that entirely frees the user from further work.
· The core algorithm of Google’s system
· Chooses what to display and how to rank links
· Users trust that Google will pull up the most relevant information for them
· Business and companies want to be ranked at the top in order to compete for attention and sales.
· It’s a way of measuring the importance of website pages and data is collected by how much people click on certain hyperlinks.
o By relying on PageRank, Google has historically favored highly motivated and web-savvy interests over truly popular and important ones.
o Measures importance of websites
· Used to describe the video game industry
· “razor” is the hardware, the console, the game playing system
· “blade” is the software, the cartridge containing the digitized game experience.
· In this industry, profitability depends on innovation in and complex interaction between both the “razor” and the “blade”
· Example: razors are practically free by replacement blades are expensive
· Video game producers such as Sony, Nintendo and Microsoft sell the game and consoles at a relatively low price and once the user buys the console, then they must buy games specifically for that console, which are sold at expensive prices.
o Manipulative way for video game industry to make a huge profit
· Take place in high-density cities primarily on the coasts.
· In New York there was a program called Per Scholars, which started in 1995 with the mission of repairing computers and donating them to schools that couldn’t afford new technology.
· It later evolved into a 15-week computer technician-training program.
· They specialize their services for the poor, homeless, uneducated
· It graduates 100-150 students a year and has an 80% placement rate after graduation.
o Provides technology and technological education for those who are less fortunate.
· Calls upon specific examples of telegraph messenger boys, Library technical workers and stenographers.
· The telegraph messenger boys used to run around without a set schedule and have little to no means of communication. Now they have a set route every day for their bike and cell phones.
· Library technical workers used to have to catalog and classify every book by hand and keep separate cards of where every book was at the time. now they have computers with metadata
· Stenographers are able to transcribe speech using a stenograph machine.
· Like many other technologies such as GPS, it was first developed as a defense system for the army, but now it is used in media recording to translate from one language to the next very efficiently.
o Made labor extremely more efficient
· The term the Bush administration used to describe the war in the Middle East that started after 9/11
· The debate with the War on Terror is how video game producers are creating games that re-enact battles.
· Stahl refers to this as the close connection between video games and real-time war situations.
· He draws upon the parallelism with the book “enders game” as wars like Call of Duty have become very similar to real-time war situations essentially as training seminars.
· Under George Bush, America’s Army was developed by the Army for recruiting purposes as it would give users wartime encounter in Iraq.
o Video game creators are making these games so close to real life that is it making war and killing people no big deal.
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