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Which of the following equations is the chemical reaction for cellular respiration?
In a trophic pyramid, the biomass of lower trophic levels is typically much greater compared to that of higher levels. What does this tell you about the transfer of energy between trophic levels?
Based on the energy and carbon sources of humans, how would humans be classified?
Which of the following organisms can NOT function as chemoautotrophs?
The Department of Energy is very interested in investigating which organisms compose the gut microbiome of cows, especially in the rumen. Why would the microbes within a cow’s rumen be studied by scientists in the Department of Energy?
A cytoskeleton enables eukaryotic cells to:
Why are eukaryotic organisms so much more diverse than prokaryotic organisms?
What allowed multicellular eukaryotic cells to generate multiple, interacting cell types during development?
Which of the following organelles does NOT contain DNA?
True or false: Photosynthesis spread through most of the eukaryotic superkingdoms by repeated episodes of endosymbiosis of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms.
The phylogenetic groupings in the eukaryotic tree of life are based primarily on:
Which one of the following is not part of the endomembrane system?
The diversity of movement found in eukaryotic cells is propagated by the:
Many single-celled eukaryotes that normally exist in a haploid state reproduce asexually by:
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are thought to have arisen from:
The most diverse eukaryotic superkingdom is:
Eight hundred million years ago, what change in atmospheric conditions coincided with an increase in eukaryotic diversity?
Which one of the following are characteristics of eukaryotic cells but not of prokaryotic cells?
A cell with chloroplasts that have four membranes (not counting the thylakoid membranes) likely arose by ____________ endosymbiotic event(s).
The first eukaryotic cell is thought to have evolved ____________ years ago.
Which of the following are adhesion proteins that are present in both choanoflagellates and animals?
Unlike plant cells, animal cells move during development. Which of the following terms describes the reorganization of undifferentiated cells that results in the formation of an embryonic structure with multiple layers?
They are channels in the plasma membrane of animal cells made of transmembrane proteins that allow ions and small molecules to pass between adjacent cells.
Which of the following signals is not a signal that may cause a change in gene expression in complex multicellular organisms?
In which order were the key features of complex multicellularity likely to have appeared?
How can two cells of a complex multicellular organism have the same genome, but markedly different structures and functions?
How do cattle digest complex plant polysaccharides like cellulose?
Which of the following statements concerning complex multicellular organisms is true?
The passive movement of a solute from a point of high concentration to a point of low concentration is known as:
Which of the following terms describes the process by which a fertilized egg develops into a multicellular organism with hundreds of different cell types, each with different structures and functions?
The enterotype of a human depends primarily on:
Which of the following is the term for a ball of undifferentiated cells that results from repeated mitosis of a fertilized ovum?
In humans and many other animals, what organ system is involved in bulk transport of nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules?
Which of the following molecules help maintain cell–cell adhesions in plants?