Cladogram is based on the relationship between different species but not to the level of detail of a phylogram. Cladograms have equal branch lengths and have norepresentation of length. Chronogram shows time.
Homology, same structure. Homoplasys same form occurs when traits are similar besides common ancestry.
Why is homoplasy a headache and why is it biologically interesting?
They allow us to see how the function of feathers evolved from a trait that was insufficient for the flight of ancestor birds into a trait they allows modern birds to fly.
How do phylogenies help us understand the evolution of feathers?
They allow us to see how the function of feathers evolved from a trait that was insufficient for the flight of ancestor birds into a trait that allows modern birds to fly.
Structures that evolve in one context but become co-opted for a different function; evolution of birds from a dinosaur ancestor
What was the ancestral function of feathers? Do we know? What are the best hypotheses? What is the evidence for them?
Feathers evolved before flight so they previously had different uses such as insulation, display, wing-assisted running.
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