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Lauren H.

prediction (P)

declaring what may or will happen.

PR

PR

value judgment (VJ)

evaluating the subject of the argument.

PR

PR

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comparison (C)

drawing a relationship between two things at two points in time.

PR

PR

recommendation in favor of or against a policy

(R)

(R)

deciding that a particular course of action should or should not be followed.

PR.

PR.

necessary condition for a result (NC)

stating what will be required to achieve a particular end.

__pr__

assertion of fact

stating the author believes something to he true.

pr

pr

always

necessary

sure to

necessary

produces

necessary

results in

necessary

are

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only (if)

necessary

necessary

necessary

necessary

necessary

guarantees

necessary

whenever

sufficient

incapable

sufficient

the only

sufficient

this showa

conclusion

studies suggest

conclusion

this proves that

conclusion

as a result

conclusion

hence

conclusion

obviously

conclusion

it follows that

conclusion

it is clear

conclusion

this

conclusion

therefore

conclusion

it is clear from

evidence

after all

evidence

from the fact that

evidence

for

evidence

since

evidence

because

evidence

X if, but only if, Y

if X then Y

AND

if Y then__X__

AND

if Y then

without Z, Y

if -Z then Y

Y depends on Z

if Y then Z

if -Z then -Y

if -Z then -Y

no Y unless Z

if Y then Z

if -Z then -Y

if -Z then -Y

Z is needed for Y

if Y then Z

if -Z then -Y

if -Z then -Y

Y needs Z

if Y then Z

if -Z then -Y

if -Z then -Y

either A or B

if -A then B

if -B then A

= never__AB__

if -B then A

= never

all except B are A

if -A then __B__

no x is y

if x then not y? double __check__

any x is y

if x then __y__

any

sufficient

everyone who is x is y

if x then __y__

everyone

sufficient

A if, but only if, B

if a then b

if -b then -a

= always AB OR never AB

if -b then -a

= always AB OR never AB

A if, and only if, B

if a --> b

if -b --> -a

= Always AB or never AB

if -b --> -a

= Always AB or never AB

if, and only if A then B

if A then B

if - B then -A

= always/never AB

if - B then -A

= always/never AB

if, BUT only if, A then B

if A then B

if -B then -A

=always/never AB

if -B then -A

=always/never AB

unless

if not ___ then ___

only if

only if A will B

if B then A

if -A then -B

= always/ never AB

if -A then -B

= always/ never AB

only

then

(necessary)

(necessary)

must

then

(necessary)

(necessary)

no A unless B

if A then B

-- if not (not A) then B = if A then__B__

-- if not (not A) then B = if A then

neither A nor B

no A AND no __B__

"not both"

no A OR no __B__

when

if

(sufficient)

(sufficient)

when A, then B

if A then __B__

every

every x is y

if x then __y__

all

sufficient

requires

necessary

each

sufficient

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