CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION The Life-Span Perspective ? Development is the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span. It includes both growth and decline. ? The life-span perspective includes these basic ideas: Development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, and plastic; its study is multidisciplinary; it is embedded in contexts; it involves growth, maintenance, and regulation; and it is a co-construction of biological, sociocultural, and individual factors. ? Health and well-being, parenting, education, sociocultural contexts and diversity, and social policy are all areas of contemporary concern for those who study life-span development. The Nature of Development ? Three key developmental processes are biological, cognitive, and socioemotional. Development is influenced by an interplay of these processes. ? The life span is commonly divided into the prenatal period, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. ? We often think of age only in chronological terms, but a full evaluation of age requires the consideration of biological age and psychological age as well. ? Three important developmental issues are the nature-nurture issue, the continuity-discontinuity issue, and the stability-change issue. Theories of Development ? According to psychoanalytic theories, including those of Freud and Erikson, development primarily depends on the unconscious mind and is heavily couched in emotion. ? Cognitive theories emphasize thinking, reasoning, language, and other cognitive processes. Three main cognitive theories are Piaget's, Vygotsky's, and information processing. ? Behavioral and social cognitive theories emphasize the environment's role in development. Two key behavioral and social cognitive theories are Skinner's operant conditioning and Bandura's social cognitive theory. ? Lorenz's ethological theory stresses the biological and evolutionary bases of development. ? According to Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory, development predominantly reflects the influence of five environmental systems?the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and chronosystem. ? An eclectic orientation incorporates the best features of different theoretical approaches. Research in Life-Span Development ? The main methods for collecting data about life-span development are observation, survey (questionnaire) or interview, standardized test, case study, and physiological measures. ? Three basic research designs are descriptive, correlational, and experimental. ? To examine the effects of time and age, researchers can conduct cross-sectional or longitudinal studies. Life-span researchers are especially concerned about cohort effects. ? Researchers have an ethical responsibility to safeguard the well-being of research participants. Notes from class: What is psychology? The study of?. ? Thinking memory, how the brain works, brain functions, human behavior, emotions, assimilation, accommodation, adaptation, association, morality, learning, personality, experience, identity, relationships, sensations, perceptions. ? Development: the growth of mental, social and physical growth, emotional and cognitive ? Cognition: a group of mental processes on understanding, learning, memory, intelligence, decision making, thinking Child development spans from conception to adolescence ? prenatal development changes and growth before birth. Lifespan? birth to death, Developmental Psychology? initially started to talk about birth onwards, but move to the whole lifespan ? According to Frued by the age of 12 we are fully developed ? Erikson argued that development is from birth to death ? The difference between Life Span Development is we are taking conception, (prenatal) to death. ? The prenatal development is the big difference between developmental psychology and life span development ? Why traditionally did they not take into account prenatal development, because due to medical advances and technology, we include it as we have more info about it. DEVELOPMENT ? Is the pattern of movement or change that starts at conception and continues through the human lifespan, refers to movement using different stages or periods. ? Growth and development are dramatic during the first two decades of life, but development is not something that happens only to children and adolescents. The traditional approach to the study of development emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence (especially during infancy), little or no change in adulthood, and decline in old age. Yet a great deal of change does occur in the decades after adolescence. The life-span approach emphasizes developmental change throughout adulthood as well as childhood. ? Prenatal? infancy? child(early middle and late)? adolescence(early middle and late)? adulthood (early middle and late) ? The belief that development occurs throughout life is central to the life-span perspective on human development, ? The life-span perspective views development as lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual, and as a process that involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss o In this view, it is important to understand that development is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F L I F E S P A N D E V E L O P M E N T 1. Life Long a. From conception to death b. Contrary to Freud 2. Multi dimensional a. Psychology, biology, sociology, 3. Multidirectional a. A decision making process that enables change 4. Plastic a. Plasticity means the capacity for change. 5. Contextual a. All development occurs within a context, or setting. Contexts include families, schools, peer groups, churches, cities, neighborhoods, university laboratories, countries, and so on. Each of these settings is influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors ? three types of influences o (1) normative age-graded influences, (2) normative history-graded influences, and (3) nonnormative or highly individualized life events. Each of these types can have a biological or environmental impact on development 1. Normative age-graded influences are similar for individuals in a particular age group. These influences include biological processes such as puberty and menopause. They also include sociocultural, environmental processes such as beginning formal education (usually at about age 6 in most cultures) and retirement (which takes place in the fifties and sixties in most cultures). 2. Normative history-graded influences are common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances. include economic, political, and social Long-term changes in the genetic and cultural makeup of a population (due to immigration or changes in fertility rates) are also part of normative historical change. 3. Nonnormative life events are unusual occurrences that have a major impact on the individual's life. These events do not happen to all people, and when they do occur they can influence people in different ways. Examples include the death of a parent when a child is young, pregnancy in early adolescence, a fire that destroys a home, winning the lottery, or getting an unexpected career opportunity. ? Development Involves Growth, Maintenance, and Regulation of Loss ? Development Is a Co-Construction of Biology, Culture, and the Individual Concerns in LSD ? Health and wellbeing, Parenting and education, Sociocultural contexts and diversity THE NATURE OF DEVELOPMENT Culture encompasses the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation. Culture results from the interaction of people over many years (A cultural group can be as large as the United States or as small as an isolated Appalachian town. Whatever its size, the group's culture influences the behavior of its members Cross-cultural studies compare aspects of two or more cultures. The comparison provides information about the degree to which development is similar, or universal, across cultures, or is instead culture-specific Ethnicity (the word ethnic comes from the Greek word for ?nation?) is rooted in cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language. African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, Native Americans, European Americans, and Arab Americans are a few examples of broad ethnic groups in the United States. Diversity exists within each ethnic group Socioeconomic status (SES) refers to a person's position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics. Socioeconomic status implies certain inequalities. Differences in the ability to control resources and to participate in society's rewards produce unequal opportunities Gender, the psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being female or male, is another important aspect of sociocultural contexts. Few aspects of our development are more central to our identity and social relationships than gender Social policy is a government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens. Values, economics, and politics all shape a nation's social policy. Out of concern that policy makers are doing too little to protect the well-being of children and older adults, Biological processes produce changes in an individual's physical nature. Genes inherited from parents, the development of the brain, height and weight gains, changes in motor skills, nutrition, exercise, the hormonal changes of puberty, and cardiovascular decline are all examples of biological processes that affect development. Cognitive processes refer to changes in an individual's thought, intelligence, and language. Watching a colorful mobile swinging above the crib, putting together a two-word sentence, memorizing a poem, imagining what it would be like to be a movie star, and solving a crossword puzzle all involve cognitive processes. Socioemotional processes involve changes in the individual's relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality. An infant's smile in response to a parent's touch, a toddler's aggressive attack on a playmate, a school-age child's development of assertiveness, an adolescent's joy at the senior prom, and the affection of an elderly couple all reflect the role of socioemotional processes in development. PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENT A developmental period is a time frame in a person's life that is characterized by certain features. The most widely used classification of developmental periods involves an eight-period sequence. For the purposes of organization and understanding, this book is structured according to these developmental periods. 1. The prenatal period is the time from conception to birth. It involves tremendous growth?from a single cell to a complete organism with a brain and behavioral capabilities?and takes place in approximately a nine-month period. 2. Infancy is the developmental period from birth to 18 or 24 months when humans are extremely dependent on adults. During this period, many psychological activities?language, symbolic thought, sensorimotor coordination, and social learning, for example?are just beginning. 3. Early childhood is the developmental period from the end of infancy to age 5 or 6. This period is sometimes called the ?preschool years.? During this time, young children learn to become more self-sufficient and to care for themselves. They also develop school readiness skills, such as the ability to follow instructions and identify letters, and they spend many hours playing with peers. First grade typically marks the end of early childhood. 4. Middle and late childhood is the developmental period from about 6 to 11 years of age, approximately corresponding to the elementary school years. During this period, the fundamental skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic are mastered. The child is formally exposed to the world outside the family and to the prevailing culture. Achievement becomes a more central theme of the child's world, and self-control increases. 5. Adolescence encompasses the transition from childhood to early adulthood, entered at approximately 10 to 12 years of age and ending at 18 to 22 years of age. Adolescence begins with rapid physical changes?dramatic gains in height and weight, changes in body contour, and the development of sexual characteristics such as enlargement of the breasts, growth of pubic and facial hair, and deepening of the voice. At this point in development, the pursuit of independence and an identity are prominent. Thought is more logical, abstract, and idealistic. More time is spent outside the family. 6. Early adulthood is the developmental period that begins in the late teens or early twenties and lasts through the thirties. For young adults, this is a time for establishing personal and economic independence, career development, and for many, selecting a mate, learning to live with someone in an intimate way, starting a family, and rearing children. 7. Middle adulthood is the developmental period from approximately 40 years of age to about 60. It is a time of expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility; of assisting the next generation in becoming competent, mature individuals; and of reaching and maintaining satisfaction in a career. 8. Late adulthood is the developmental period that begins in the sixties or seventies and lasts until death. It is a time of life review, retirement, and adjustment to new social roles involving decreasing strength and health. Late adulthood lasts longer than any other period of development. Because the number of people in this age group has been increasing dramatically, life-span developmentalists have been paying more attention to differences within late adulthood. According to Paul Baltes and Jacqui Smith (2003), a major change takes place in older adults' lives as they become the ?oldest-old,? at about 85 years of age. The ?young-old? (classified as 65 through 84 in this analysis) have substantial potential for physical and cognitive fitness, retain much of their cognitive capacity, and can develop strategies to cope with the gains and losses of aging. In contrast, the oldest-old (85 and older) show considerable loss in cognitive skills, experience an increase in chronic stress, and are more frail Nonetheless, considerable variation exists in how much of their capabilities the oldest-old retain. AGES: ? First age? childhood to adolescence ? Second age? adolescence to adulthood 20-50 yrs ? Third age? 60-79 yrs ? Fourth age ? 80 and older yrs. ? Chronological age is the number of years that have elapsed since birth. ? Biological age is a person's age in terms of biological health. Determining biological age involves knowing the functional capacities of a person's vital organs. One person's vital capacities may be better or worse than those of others of comparable chronological age. The younger the person's biological age, the longer the person is expected to live, regardless of chronological age. ? Psychological age is an individual's adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age. Thus, older adults who continue to learn, are flexible, are motivated, and think clearly are engaging in more adaptive behaviors than their chronological age-mates who do not do these things. ? Social Age is societies age expectations The nature-nurture issue concerns the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture. Nature refers to an organism's biological inheritance, nurture to its environmental experiences. Examples: ? Juvenile Deliquency o Both, could be biologically predisposed or could be neglect or abuse ? ADHD o A neurological condition, childhood, very strong nature/biological attention is part of cognition but also an environmental component, with parenting and school and learning abilities ? Bipolar Disorder o Has a genetic component but the support that the individual receives based on environment ? Downs Syndrome o Biological- has extra 21 chromosome- human genome- the behavior and cognitive ability is due to the extra chromosome, not every child with this is the same- due to environment, resources, support, and parenting relationships. ? Aspergers o Inability to form social relationships, biological stability-change issue , involving the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change. Many developmentalists who emphasize stability in development argue that stability is the result of heredity and possibly early experiences in life. ? plasticity The continuity-discontinuity issue focuses on the degree to which development involves either gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity). ? Continuity graded cumulative change? quantitative (quantity) ? Discontinuity distinct change ? qualitative (quality) ? Is the change gradual or abrupt? A combination of both. THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT ? Developed by scientific method o Conceptualize?collect data?analyze?draw conclusions ? 3 goals: describe, explain, predict ? A theory is an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and make predictions. It may suggest hypotheses, which are specific assertions and predictions that can be tested. ? five theoretical orientations to development: psychoanalytic, cognitive, behavioral and social cognitive, ethological, and ecological. ? Psychoanalytic theories describe development primarily in terms of unconscious (beyond awareness) processes that are heavily colored by emotion. Psychoanalytic theorists emphasize that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that a true understanding of development requires analyzing the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind. Psychoanalytic theorists also stress that early experiences with parents extensively shape development. ? Freud developed a technique called psychoanalysis. As he listened to, probed, and analyzed his patients, he became convinced that their problems were the result of experiences early in life. He thought that as children grow up, their focus of pleasure and sexual impulses shifts from the mouth to the anus and eventually to the genitals. Consequently, he determined, we pass through five stages of psychosexual development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital Our adult personality, Freud (1917) claimed, is determined by the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality. ? ID EGO SUPER EGO ? Id ?has to do with the pleasure principles, happens during infancy, baby is experiencing pleasure ? Ego?the reality prinicple, I am a child, realtiy ? Super ego? moral principle, learning the difference between right and wrong. ? Many of today's psychoanalytic theorists believe that Freud overemphasized sexual instincts; they place more emphasis on cultural experiences as determinants of an individual's development. Unconscious thought remains a central theme, but thought plays a greater role than Freud envisioned. ? Erik Erikson recognized Freud's contributions but believed that Freud misjudged some important dimensions of human development. ? Erikson said we develop in psychosocial stages, rather than in psychosexual stages. ? According to Freud, the primary motivation for human behavior is sexual in nature ? According to Erikson, motivation is social and reflects a desire to affiliate with other people. ? According to Freud, our basic personality is shaped in the first five years of life ? According to Erikson, developmental change occurs throughout the life span. ? Thus, Freud viewed early experiences as far more important than later experiences, whereas Erikson emphasized the importance of both early and later experiences. ? Erikson's theory A psychoanalytic theory in which eight stages of psychosocial development unfold throughout the human life span. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced. 1. Trust versus mistrust is Erikson's first psychosocial stage, which is experienced in the first year of life. Trust in infancy sets the stage for a lifelong expectation that the world will be a good and pleasant place to live. 2. Autonomy versus shame and doubt is Erikson's second stage. This stage occurs in late infancy and toddlerhood (1 to 3 years). After gaining trust in their caregivers, infants begin to discover that their behavior is their own. They start to assert their sense of independence or autonomy. They realize their will. If infants and toddlers are restrained too much or punished too harshly, they are likely to develop a sense of shame and doubt. 3. Initiative versus guilt, Erikson's third stage of development, occurs during the preschool years. As preschool children encounter a widening social world, they face new challenges that require active, purposeful, responsible behavior. Feelings of guilt may arise, though, if the child is irresponsible and is made to feel too anxious. 4. Industry versus inferiority is Erikson's fourth developmental stage, occurring approximately in the elementary school years. Children now need to direct their energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills. The negative outcome is that the child may develop a sense of inferiority?feeling incompetent and unproductive. 5. During the adolescent years individuals face finding out who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going in life. This is Erikson's fifth developmental stage, identity versus identity confusion. If adolescents explore roles in a healthy manner and arrive at a positive path to follow in life, then they achieve a positive identity; if not, then identity confusion reigns. 6. Intimacy versus isolation is Erikson's sixth developmental stage, which individuals experience during the early adulthood years. At this time, individuals face the developmental task of forming intimate relationships. If young adults form healthy friendships and an intimate relationship with another, intimacy will be achieved; if not, isolation will result. 7. Generativity versus stagnation, Erikson's seventh developmental stage, occurs during middle adulthood. By generativity, Erikson means primarily a concern for helping the younger generation to develop and lead useful lives. The feeling of having done nothing to help the next generation is stagnation. 8. Integrity versus despair is Erikson's eighth and final stage of development, which individuals experience in late adulthood. During this stage, a person reflects on the past. If the person's life review reveals a life well spent, integrity will be achieved; if not, the retrospective glances likely will yield doubt or gloom?the despair Erikson described. Cognitive theories Piaget's theory states that children go through four stages of cognitive development as they actively construct their understanding of the world. Two processes underlie this cognitive construction of the world: organization and adaptation. To make sense of our world, we organize our experiences. we adapt, adjusting to new environmental demands. ? The sensorimotor stage, which lasts from birth to about 2 years of age, is the first Piagetian stage. In this stage, infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with physical, motor actions?hence the term sensorimotor. ? The preoperational stage, which lasts from approximately 2 to 7 years of age, is Piaget's second stage. In this stage, children begin to go beyond simply connecting sensory information with physical action and represent the world with words, images, and drawings. However, according to Piaget, preschool children still lack the ability to perform what he calls operations, which are internalized mental actions that allow children to do mentally what they previously could only do physically. For example, if you imagine putting two sticks together to see whether they would be as long as another stick, without actually moving the sticks, you are performing a concrete operation. ? The concrete operational stage, which lasts from approximately 7 to 11 years of age, is the third Piagetian stage. In this stage, children can perform operations that involve objects, and they can reason logically about specific or concrete examples. Concrete operational thinkers, however, cannot imagine the steps necessary to complete an algebraic equation, for they require a level of thinking that is too abstract for this stage of development. ? The formal operational stage, which appears between the ages of 11 and 15 and continues through adulthood, is Piaget's fourth and final stage. In this stage, individuals move beyond concrete experiences and think in abstract and more logical terms. As part of thinking more abstractly, adolescents develop images of ideal circumstances. They might think about what an ideal parent is like and compare their parents to this ideal standard. In solving problems, they become more systematic, developing hypotheses about why something is happening the way it is and then testing these hypotheses. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Cognitive Theory ? the Russian developmentalist Lev Vygotsky (1896?1934) reasoned that children actively construct their knowledge. ? gave social interaction and culture far more important roles in cognitive development than Piaget did. ? Vygotsky's theory is a sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development. ? Vygotsky portrayed the child's development as inseparable from social and cultural activities He stressed that cognitive development involves learning to use the inventions of society, such as language, mathematical systems, and memory strategies. ? children's social interaction with more-skilled adults and peers is indispensable to their cognitive development Through this interaction, they learn to use the tools that will help them adapt and be successful in their culture. ? Information-processing theory emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. Unlike Piaget's theory but like Vygotsky's theory, information-processing theory does not describe development as stage- like. Instead, according to this theory individuals develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing information, which allows them to acquire increasingly complex knowledge and skills ? Robert Siegler (2006), a leading expert on children's information processing, states that thinking is information processing. In other words, when individuals perceive, encode, represent, store, and retrieve information, they are thinking. Siegler emphasizes that an important aspect of development is learning good strategies for processing information. ? Behavioral and social cognitive theories hold that development can be described in terms of behaviors learned through interactions with our surroundings. Behaviorism essentially holds that we can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured. Out of the behavioral tradition grew the belief that development is observable behavior that can be learned through experience with the environment. ? B. F. Skinner (1904?1990), through operant conditioning the consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior's reccurrence. A behavior followed by a rewarding stimulus is more likely to recur, whereas a behavior followed by a punishing stimulus is less likely to recur. ? Social cognitive theory holds that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are the key factors in development. ? Albert Bandura (1925? ) is the leading architect of social cognitive theory. Banduraemphasizes that cognitive processes have important links with the environment and behavior. ? observational learning (also called imitation or modeling), which is learning that occurs through observing what others do. ? Ethology is the study of the behavior of animals in their natural habitat. Ethological theory stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods. These are specific time frames during which, according to ethologists, the presence or absence of certain experiences has a long-lasting influence on individuals. ? John Bowlby illustrated an important application of ethological theory to human development. Bowlby stressed that attachment to a caregiver over the first year of life has important consequences throughout the life span. ? Lorenz ? imprinting, the rapid, innate learning that involves attachment to the first moving object seen. ? Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory ?holds that development reflects the influence of several environmental systems. The theory identifies five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem Key Terms Development-The pattern of movement or change that starts at conception and continues through the human life span. life-span perspective-The perspective that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual; involves growth, maintenance, and regulation; and is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together. normative age-graded influences-: Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group. normative history-graded influences- Biological and environmental influences that are associated with history. These influences are common to people of a particular generation. nonnormative life events- Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on a person's life. The occurrence, pattern, and sequence of these events are not applicable to many individuals. Culture-the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation. Ethnicity- A range of characteristics rooted in cultural heritage, including nationality, race, religion, and language. socioeconomic status (SES) - Refers to the conceptual grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics. gender - The psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being female or male. social policy - A national government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens. biological processes- Changes in an individual's physical nature. cognitive processes - Changes in an individual's thought, intelligence, and language. socioemotional processes- Changes in an individual's relationships with other people, emotions, and personality. nature-nurture issue - The debate about the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture. Nature refers to an organism's biological inheritance, nurture to its environmental experiences. stability-change issue - The debate about the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change. continuity-discontinuity issue - The debate about the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity). Theory- A coherent set of ideas that helps to explain data and to make predictions. psychoanalytic theories -Theories that hold that development depends primarily on the unconscious mind and is heavily couched in emotion, that behavior is merely a surface characteristic, that it is important to analyze the symbolic meanings of behavior, and that early experiences are important in development. Erikson's theory - A psychoanalytic theory in which eight stages of psychosocial development unfold throughout the human life span. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced. Piaget's theory - The theory that children construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development. Vygotsky's theory - A sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development. information-processing theory - A theory that emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. The processes of memory and thinking are central. behavioral and social cognitive theories -Theories that hold that development can be described in terms of the behaviors learned through interactions with the environment. social cognitive theory - The theory that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are important in understanding development. ethology - An approach that stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, tied to evolution, and characterized by critical or sensitive periods. Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory- Bronfenbrenner's environmental systems theory that focuses on five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem. CHAPTER 2 BIOLOGICAL BEGINNINGS The Evolutionary Perspective ? Darwin proposed that natural selection fuels evolution. In evolutionary theory, adaptive behavior is behavior that promotes the organism's survival in a natural habitat. ? Evolutionary psychology holds that adaptation, reproduction, and ?survival of the fittest? are important in shaping behavior. Evolutionary developmental psychology emphasizes that an extended ?juvenile? period is needed to develop a large brain and learn the complexity of human social communities. Genetic Foundations of Development ? Except in the sperm and egg, the nucleus of each human cell contains 46 chromosomes, which are composed of DNA. Short segments of DNA constitute genes, the units of hereditary information that direct cells to reproduce and manufacture proteins. Genes act collaboratively, not independently. ? Genes are passed on to new cells when chromosomes are duplicated during the processes of mitosis and meiosis. ? Genetic principles include those involving dominant-recessive genes, sex-linked genes, and polygenic inheritance. ? Chromosome abnormalities can produce Down syndrome and other problems; gene-linked disorders, such as PKU, involve defective genes. The Interaction of Heredity and Environment: The Nature-Nurture Debate ? Behavior geneticists use twin studies and adoption studies to determine the strength of heredity's influence on development. ? In Scarr's heredity-environment correlation view, heredity directs the types of environments that children experience. Scarr identified three types of genotype-environment interactions: passive, evocative, and active (niche-picking). ? The epigenetic view emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment. Recently, interest has developed in how gene x gene interaction influences development. ? The interaction of heredity and environment is complex, but we can create a unique developmental path by changing our environment. Prenatal Development ? Prenatal development is divided into three periods: germinal, embryonic, and fetal. The growth of the brain during prenatal development is nothing short of remarkable. ? A number of prenatal tests, including ultrasound sonography, fetal MRI, chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, and maternal blood screening, can reveal whether a fetus is developing normally. ? Approximately 10 to 15 percent of U.S. couples have infertility problems. Assisted reproduction techniques, such as in vitro fertilization, are increasingly being used by infertile couples. ? Some prescription drugs and nonprescription drugs can harm the unborn child. In particular, the psychoactive drugs caffeine, alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, marijuana, and heroin can endanger developing offspring. Other potential harmful effects on the fetus include incompatibility of the mother's and the father's blood types, environmental hazards, maternal diseases, maternal diet and nutrition, age, emotional states and stress, and paternal factors. ? Prenatal care usually involves medical care services with a defined schedule of visits and often includes educational, social, and nutritional services. Inadequate prenatal care may increase the risk of infant mortality and result in low birth weight. Birth and the Postpartum Period ? Childbirth occurs in three stages. Childbirth strategies involve the childbirth setting and attendants. In many countries, a midwife attends a childbearing woman. In some countries, a doula helps with the birth. Methods of delivery include medicated, natural and prepared, and cesarean. ? Being born involves considerable stress for the baby, but the baby is well prepared and adapted to handle the stress. Low birth weight, preterm, and small for date infants are at risk for developmental problems, although most of these infants are normal and healthy. Kangaroo care and massage therapy have been shown to have benefits for preterm infants. ? Early bonding has not been found to be critical in the development of a competent infant, but close contact in the first few days after birth may reduce the mother's anxiety and lead to better interaction later. ? The postpartum period lasts for about six weeks after childbirth or until the body has returned to a nearly prepregnant state; postpartum depression is a serious condition that may become worse if not treated. Notes: ? The nucleus of each human cell contains chromosomes, which are threadlike structures made up of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. DNAis a complex molecule that has a double helix shape, like a spiral staircase, and contains genetic information. Genes, the units of hereditary information, are short segments of DNA, ? Human Genome Project was a report indicating that humans have only about 30,000 genes .More recently, the number of human genes has been revised further downward, to approximately 20,500. Scientists had thought that humans had as many as 100,000 or more genes. ? All cells in your body, except the sperm and egg, have 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs. These cells reproduce by a process called mitosis. ? During mitosis, the cell's nucleus?including the chromosomes?duplicates itself and the cell divides. Two new cells are formed, each containing the same DNA as the original cell, arranged in the same 23 pairs of chromosomes. ? a different type of cell division?meiosis?forms eggs and sperm (or gametes). During meiosis, a cell of the testes (in men) or ovaries (in women) duplicates its chromosomes but then divides twice, thus forming four cells, each of which has only half of the genetic material of the parent cell. By the end of meiosis, each egg or sperm has 23 unpaired chromosomes. ? During fertilization, an egg and a sperm fuse to create a single cell, called a zygote. In the zygote, the 23 unpaired chromosomes from the egg and the 23 unpaired chromosomes from the sperm combine to form one set of 23 paired chromosomes?one chromosome of each pair from the mother's egg and the other from the father's sperm. In this manner, each parent contributes half of the offspring's genetic material. ? Combining the genes of two parents in their offspring increases genetic variability in the population, ? All of a person's genetic material makes up his or her genotype ? A phenotype consists of observable characteristics, including physical characteristics (such as height, weight, and hair color) and psychological characteristics (such as personality and intelligence). GENES ? One gene of a pair always exerts its effects; in other words, it is dominant, overriding the potential influence of the other gene, which is called the recessive gene. This is the dominant-and-recessive genes principle. A recessive gene exerts its influence only if the two genes of a pair are both recessive. ? When a mutated gene is carried on the X chromosome, the result is called X-linked inheritance. It may have very different implications for males than for females. Remember that males have only one X chromosome. Thus, if there is an altered, disease-creating gene on the X chromosome, males have no ?backup? copy to counter the harmful gene and therefore may carry an X-linked disease. However, females have a second X chromosome, which is likely to be unchanged. As a result, they are not likely to have the X-linked disease. Thus, most individuals who have X-linked diseases are males. ? Down syndrome is one of the most common genetically linked causes of mental retardation; it is also characterized by certain physical features. An individual with Down syndrome has a round face, a flattened skull, an extra fold of skin over the eyelids, a thickened tongue, short limbs, and retardation of motor and mental abilities. The syndrome is caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21. It is not known why the extra chromosome is present, but the health of the male sperm or female ovum may be involved. ? Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic disorder in which males have an extra X chromosome, making them XXY instead of XY. Males with this disorder have undeveloped testes, and they usually have enlarged breasts and become tall. Klinefelter syndrome occurs approximately once in every 800 live male births. ? Fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder that results from an abnormality in the X chromosome, which becomes constricted and often breaks. A lower level of intelligence often is an outcome, and it may take the form of mental retardation, a learning disability, or a short attention span. This disorder occurs more frequently in males than in females, possibly because the second X chromosome in females negates the effects of the other, abnormal X chromosome. ? Turner syndrome is a chromosome disorder in females in which either an X chromosome is missing, making the person XO instead of XX, or part of one X chromosome is deleted. Females with Turner syndrome are short in stature and have a webbed neck. In some cases, they are infertile. They have difficulty in mathematics, but their verbal ability is often quite good. Turner syndrome occurs in approximately 1 of every 2,500 live female births. ? The XYY syndrome is a chromosomal disorder in which the male has an extra Y chromosome. Early interest in this syndrome focused on the belief that the extra Y chromosome found in some males contributed to aggression and violence. However, researchers subsequently found that XYY males are no more likely to commit crimes than are XY males ? Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disorder in which the individual cannot properly metabolize phenylalanine, an amino acid that naturally occurs in many food sources. It results from a recessive gene and occurs about once in every 10,000 to 20,000 live births. ? Sickle-cell anemia, which occurs most often in African Americans, is a genetic disorder that impairs the body's red blood cells. Red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body, are usually shaped like a disk. In sickle-cell anemia, a recessive gene causes the red blood cell to become a hook-shaped ?sickle? that cannot carry oxygen properly and dies quickly. As a result, the body's cells do not receive adequate oxygen, causing anemia and early death. About 1 in 400 African American babies is affected by sickle-cell anemia. One in 10 African Americans is a carrier, as is 1 in 20 Latin Americans PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT ? conception?when two parental cells, with their unique genetic contributions, meet to create a new individual. The germinal period is the period of prenatal development that takes place in the first two weeks after conception. It includes the creation of the fertilized egg (the zygote), cell division, and the attachment of the multicellular organism to the uterine wall. o Rapid cell division by the zygote begins the germinal period. o Within one week after conception, the differentiation of these cells?their specialization for different tasks?has already begun. o At this stage the organism, now called the blastocyst, consists of a hollow ball of cells that will eventually develop into the embryo, o and the trophoblast, an outer layer of cells that later provides nutrition and support for the embryo. o Implantation, the embedding of the blastocyst in the uterine wall, takes place in the second week after conception. The embryonic period is the period of prenatal development that occurs from two to eight weeks after conception. During the embryonic period, the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for cells form, and organs appear. o The mass of cells is now called an embryo, and three layers of cells form. The embryo's endoderm is the inner layer of cells, which will develop into the digestive and respiratory systems. The ectoderm is the outermost layer, which will become the nervous system, sensory receptors (ears, nose, and eyes, )and skin parts (hair and nails, for example). The mesoderm is the middle layer, which will become the circulatory system, bones, muscles, excretory system, and reproductive system. Every body part eventually develops from these three layers. The endoderm primarily produces internal body parts, the mesoderm primarily produces parts that surround the internal areas, and the ectoderm primarily produces surface parts. o Organogenesis is the name given to the process of organ formation during the first two months of prenatal development. While they are being formed, the organs are especially vulnerable to environmental influences. As the embryo's three layers form, life-support systems for the embryo develop rapidly. o The fetal period, which lasts about seven months, is the prenatal period that extends from two months after conception until birth in typical pregnancies. Growth and development continue their dramatic course during this time. o Three months after conception, the fetus is about 3 inches long and weighs about 1 ounce. It has become active, moving its arms and legs, opening and closing its mouth, and moving its head. o The face, forehead, eyelids, nose, and chin are distinguishable, as are the upper arms, lower arms, hands, and lower limbs. In most cases, the genitals can be identified as male or female. o By the end of the fourth month of pregnancy, the fetus has grown to 6 inches in length and weighs 4 to 7 ounces. At this time, a growth spurt occurs in the body's lower parts. - mother can feel arm and leg movements. o By the end of the fifth month, the fetus is about 12 inches long and weighs close to a pound. Structures of the skin have formed?including toenails and fingernails. o By the end of the sixth month, the fetus is about 14 inches long and has gained another 6 to 12 ounces. The eyes and eyelids are completely formed, and a fine layer of hair covers the head. A grasping reflex is present and irregular breathing movements occur. o As early as six months of pregnancy (about 24 to 25 weeks after conception), the fetus for the first time has a chance of surviving outside the womb?that is, it is viable o During the last two months of prenatal development, fatty tissues develop and the functioning of various organ systems?heart and kidneys, for example?steps up. During the eighth and ninth months, the fetus grows longer and gains substantial weight?about 4 more pounds. o At birth, the average American baby weighs 7 pounds and is about 20 inches long. In addition to describing prenatal development in terms of germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods, prenatal development also can be divided into equal three-month periods, called trimesters Remember that the three trimesters are not the same as the three prenatal periods we have discussed. The germinal and embryonic periods occur in the first trimester. The fetal period begins toward the end of the first trimester and continues through the second and third trimesters ? The Germinal Period: ? First two weeks after conception, called a zygote,- fertilized eggs- attatchment of the zygote to the uterine wall ? The Embryonic period, ? Now called an embryo- occurs 2-8 weeks, after conception, rate of cell differentiation intensifies, blastocyst attatches self to uterine wall, every body part develops from these 3 layers, endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm The Fetal Period Begins 2 months after conception, and lasts for 7 months, 3 months after conception, fetus is about 3 inch long weights about 3 ounces By the end of 5th month, the fetus is 12 in long and weights close to a pound At birth avg 7 ½ pounds and 20 inch long Viability- the chances of surviving outside the womb occurs at 3 trimester, about 24-25 weeks after conception The brain ? By the time babies are born they have approx 100 billion neurons ? The basic architecture of the brain is assembled during the first two trimesters ? The third trimester and the first two years of postnatal life are characterized by connectivity and functioning of neurons. Prenatal Tests ? Ultrasound, songraphy, fetal mri, chronic villy scraping, amniocentesis, maternal blood screening, triple screen Hazards to Prenatal Development ? A teratogen is any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes ? Drugs, incompatible blood types, environmental pollutants, diseases, maternal stress, and age ? Prescription drugs? antibiotics, antidepressants, hormones, ? Psychoactive drugs? caffeine, drinking, nicotine, meth, weed heroin ? Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)A cluster of abnormalities that appears in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy. Key Terms Chromosomes - Threadlike structures made up of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. DNA - A complex molecule with a double helix shape that contains genetic information. genes - Units of hereditary information composed of DNA. Genes direct cells to reproduce themselves and manufacture the proteins that maintain life. mitosis - Cellular reproduction in which the cell's nucleus duplicates itself with two new cells being formed, each containing the same DNA as the parent cell, arranged in the same 23 pairs of chromosomes. meiosis - A specialized form of cell division that occurs to form eggs and sperm (or gametes). genotype - A person's genetic heritage; the actual genetic material. phenotype - the way an individual's genotype is expressed in observed and measurable characteristics. Down syndrome - A chromosomally transmitted form of mental retardation, caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21. germinal period - The period of prenatal development that takes place in the first two weeks after conception. It includes the creation of the zygote, continued cell division, and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall. embryonic period - The period of prenatal development that occurs two to eight weeks after conception. During the embryonic period, the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for the cells form, and organs appear. organogenesis - Organ formation that takes place during the first two months of prenatal development. fetal period - The prenatal period of development that begins two months after conception and lasts for seven months, on the average. Teratogen- Any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes. fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)- A cluster of abnormalities that appears in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy. CHAPTER 3. PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY Physical Growth and Development in Infancy ? Most development follows cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns. ? Physical growth is rapid in the first year but rate of growth slows in the second year. ? Dramatic changes characterize the brain's development in the first two years. ? Newborns usually sleep 16 to 17 hours a day, but by 4 months many American infants approach adult-like sleeping patterns. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a condition that occurs when a sleeping infant suddenly stops breathing and dies without an apparent cause. ? Infants need to consume about 50 calories per day for each pound they weigh. The growing consensus is that breast feeding is more beneficial than bottle-feeding. Motor Development ? Dynamic systems theory seeks to explain how motor behaviors are assembled for perceiving and acting. This theory emphasizes that experience plays an important role in motor development, and that perception and action are coupled. ? Reflexes?automatic movements?govern the newborn's behavior. ? Key gross motor skills, which involve large-muscle activities, developed during infancy include control of posture and walking. ? Fine motor skills involve finely tuned movements. The onset of reaching and grasping marks a significant accomplishment, and this becomes more refined during the first two years of life. Sensory and Perceptual Development ? Sensation occurs when information interacts with sensory receptors. Perception is the interpretation of sensation. ? Created by the Gibsons, the ecological view states that perception brings people into contact with the environment to interact with and adapt to it. ? The infant's visual acuity increases dramatically in the first year of life. By 3 months of age, infants show size and shape constancy. In Gibson and Walk's classic study, infants had depth perception as young as 6 months of age. ? The fetus can hear several weeks prior to birth. Just after being born, infants can hear but their sensory threshold is higher than that of adults. Newborns can respond to touch, feel pain, differentiate among odors, and may be sensitive to taste at birth. ? A basic form of intermodal perception is present in newborns and sharpens over the first year of life. ? In perception, nature advocates are referred to as nativists and nurture proponents are called empiricists. A strong empiricist approach is unwarranted. A full account of perceptual development includes the roles of nature, nurture, and the infant's developing sensitivity to information. Cognitive Development ? In Piaget's theory, children construct their own cognitive worlds, building mental structures to adapt to their world. Schemes, assimilation and accommodation, organization, and equilibration are key processes in Piaget's theory. According to Piaget, there are four qualitatively different stages of thought. In sensorimotor thought, the first of Piaget's four stages, the infant organizes and coordinates sensations with physical movements. The stage lasts from birth to about 2 years of age. One key accomplishment of this stage is object permanence. In the past decades, revisions of Piaget's view have been proposed based on research. ? A different approach than Piaget's focuses on infants' operant conditioning, attention, imitation, memory, and concept formation. Language Development ? Rules describe the way language works. Language is characterized by infinite generativity. ? Infants reach a number of milestones in development, including first words and two-word utterances. ? Chomsky argues that children are born with the ability to detect basic features and rules of language. The behavioral view has not been supported by research. How much of language is biologically determined, and how much depends on interaction with others, is a subject of debate among linguists and psychologists. However, all agree that both biological capacity and relevant experience are necessary. Parents should talk extensively with an infant, especially about what the baby is attending to. PATTERNS OF GROWTH ? During prenatal development and early infancy, the head occupies an extraordinary proportion of the total body ? cephalocaudal pattern is the sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top?the head?with physical growth and differentiation of features gradually working their way down from top to bottom . ? proximodistal pattern, a sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities. ? The average North American newborn is 20 inches long and weighs 7½ pounds. ? Lateralization is the specialization of function in one hemisphere or the other ? in each hemisphere: the frontal lobes, the occipital lobes, the temporal lobes,and the parietal lobes ? Cerebral Cortex- covers the forebrain like a wrinkled cap ? Two halves? or hemispheres based on ridges and valleys in cortex, opposite sides control each other ? Frontal lobe? executive functions, sequencing, planning, coordinating, logic, memory attention, cognitive and executive skills ? Parietal? body senses there are two ? Temporal? there are two, deal with hearing ? Occipital ? vision Neuron-Nerve Cells ? Parts of the neuron ? Axon? carries signals away from the cell body ? Dendrite? carries signals towards the cell body ? Myelin Sheath? layer of fat cells provides insulation and helps electrical signals ? travel faster down the axon ? At the end of the axon are terminal buttons which release ? chemicals called neurotransmitters into synapses ? Synapses? tiny gaps between neurons fibers Sleep ? During the first two yrs sleep is important because nerve cells are establishing connections ? Considerable individual variations of how much infants sleep ? Typical newborns sleep 16-17 hours a day ? Spend a great time in REM ? By three months the time in REM decreases. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a condition that occurs when an infant stops breathing, usually during the night, and dies suddenly without an apparent cause Risk of SIDS in highest 2-4 age ? Sides decreased when infants sleep on their backs/side ? More common in low birth weight ? Who are exposed to smoke are at higher risk ? Soft bedding What are some of the benefits of breast feeding? During the first two years of life and beyond, these benefits include o appropriate weight gain and lowered risk of childhood obesity o lower risk of SIDS o fewer gastrointestinal infections o and fewer lower respiratory tract infections o Benefits of breast feeding for the mother include a lower incidence of breast cancer) and a reduction in ovarian cancer o development of an attachment bond between mother and infant o Are there circumstances when mothers should not breast feed? ? Yes: A mother should not breast feed if she (1) is infected with AIDS or any other infectious disease that can be transmitted through her milk, (2) has active tuberculosis, or (3) is taking any drug that may not be safe for the infant According to dynamic systems theory, infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting; perception and action are coupled together. In order to develop motor skills, infants must perceive something in the environment that motivates them to act, then use their perceptions to fine-tune their movements. Motor skills thus represent solutions to the infant's goals. Reflexes are built-in reactions to stimuli, and they govern the newborn's movements. Gross motor skills are skills that involve large-muscle activities, such as moving one's arms and walking. Fine motor skills- Motor skills that involve more finely tuned movements such as finger dexterity SENSORY & PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT ? Sensation occurs when information interacts with sensory receptors?the eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils, and skin. The sensation of hearing occurs when waves of pulsating air are collected by the outer ear and transmitted through the bones of the inner ear to the auditory nerve. The sensation of vision occurs as rays of light contact the eyes, become focused on the retina, and are transmitted by the optic nerve to the visual centers of the brain. ? Perception is the interpretation of what is sensed. The air waves that contact the ears might be interpreted as noise or as musical sounds, for example. The physical energy transmitted to the retina of the eye might be interpreted as a particular color, pattern, or shape, depending on how it is perceived. ? Gibsons' ecological view, we directly perceive information that exists in the world around us. Perception brings us into contact with the environment in order to interact with and adapt to it. Perception is designed for action. It gives people such information as when to duck, when to turn their bodies through a narrow passageway, and when to put their hands up to catch something. ? The Visual Preference Method Robert Fantz (1963), a pioneer in this effort, made an important discovery: Infants look at different things for different lengths of time. ? studying whether infants can distinguish one stimulus from another by measuring the length of time they attend to different stimuli?is referred to as the visual preference method. ? Habituation is the name given to decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus. ? Dishabituationis the recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation. Newborn infants can habituate to repeated sights, sounds, smells, or touches PIAGET ? Jean Piaget thought that, just as our physical bodies have structures that enable us to adapt to the world, we build mental structures that help us to adapt to the world. Adaptation involves adjusting to new environmental demands. Piaget stressed that children actively construct their own cognitive worlds; information is not just poured into their minds from the environment. He sought to discover how children at different points in their development think about the world and how systematic changes in their thinking occur. ? Processes of Development ? Schemes According to Piaget (1954), as the infant or child seeks to construct an understanding of the world, the developing brain creates schemes. These are actions or mental representations that organize knowledge. In Piaget's theory, infants create behavioral schemes, where as toddlers and older children create mental schemes. ? Assimilation and Accommodation To explain how children use and adapt their schemes, Piaget offered two concepts: assimilation and accommodation. ? Assimilation occurs when children use their existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences. Accommodation occurs when children adjust their schemes to take new information and experiences into account. ? Organization To make sense out of their world, said Piaget, children cognitively organize their experiences. Organization, in Piaget's theory, is the grouping of isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher- order system. Continual refinement of this organization is an inherent part of development. A child who has only a vague idea about how to use a hammer may also have a vague idea about how to use other tools. After learning how to use each one, she relates these uses to one another, thereby organizing her knowledge. ? Equilibration and Stages of Development Assimilation and accommodation always take the child to a higher level, according to Piaget. In trying to understand the world, the child inevitably experiences cognitive conflict, or disequilibrium. That is, the child is constantly faced with inconsistencies and counterexamples to his or her existing schemes. For example, if a child believes that pouring water from a short, wide container into a tall, narrow container changes the amount of water in the container, the child might wonder where the ?extra? water came from and whether there is actually more water to drink. This puzzle creates disequilibrium; and in Piaget's view the resulting search for equilibrium creates motivation for change. The child assimilates and accommodates, adjusting old schemes, developing new schemes, and organizing and reorganizing the old and new schemes. Eventually, the organization is fundamentally different from the old organization; it becomes a new way of thinking. ? Equilibration is the name Piaget gave to this mechanism by which children shift from one stage of thought to the next. Equilibration does not, however, happen all at once. There is considerable movement between states of cognitive equilibrium and disequilibrium as assimilation and accommodation work in concert to produce cognitive change. ? A result of these processes, according to Piaget, is that individuals go through four stages of development. A different way of understanding the world makes one stage more advanced than another. Cognition is qualitatively different in one stage compared with another. In other words, the way children reason at one stage is different from the way they reason at another stage. Here our focus is on Piaget's stage of infant cognitive development. ? The sensorimotor stage lasts from birth to about age 2. In this stage, infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with physical, motor actions?hence the term ?sensorimotor.? At the beginning of this stage, newborns have little more than reflexes to work with. At the end of the sensorimotor stage, 2-year-olds can produce complex sensorimotor patterns and use primitive symbols. We first summarize Piaget's descriptions of how infants develop. Later we consider criticisms of his view. ? Object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched. Acquiring the sense of object permanence is one of the infant's most important accomplishments. ? Attention, the focusing of mental resources on select information, improves cognitive processing on many tasks. Even newborns can detect a contour and fix their attention on it. ? joint attention, in which individuals focus on the same object or event. Joint attention requires (1) the ability to track another's behavior, such as following someone's gaze; (2) one person directing another's attention; and (3) reciprocal interaction. ? Meltzoff (2005) has also studied deferred imitation, which occurs after a time delay of hours or days MEMORY memory, which involves the retention of information over time. Implicit memory refers to memory without conscious recollection?memories of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically. In contrast, explicit memory refers to conscious memory of facts and experiences. LANGUAGE Language is a form of communication?whether spoken, written, or signed?that is, based on a system of symbols. Language consists of the words used by a community and the rules for varying and combining them. All human languages have some common characteristics, such as organizational rules and infinite generativity .Rules describe the way the language works; infinite generativity is the ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules. ? Crying. Babies cry even at birth. Crying can signal distress, but as we will discuss in Chapter 6, there are different types of cries that signal different things. o Basic o Anger o Pain ? Hunger stimulates a basic cry. The anger cry is like the basic cry, but sudden. More air is forced through the vocal chords, so it's louder. The pain cry is sharp and loud and the infant holds his breath between cries. ? Cooing. Babies first coo at about 2 to 4 months. Coos are gurgling sounds that are made in the back of the throat and usually express pleasure during interaction with the caregiver. ? Babbling. In the middle of the first year, babies babble?that is, they produce strings of consonant-vowel combinations such as ?ba, ba, ba, ba.? ? Gestures. Infants start using gestures, such as showing and pointing, at about 8 to 12 months (Goldin-Meadow, 2010). They may wave bye-bye, nod to mean ?yes,? and show an empty cup to want more milk. A recent study found that parents in high socioeconomic status (SES) families were more likely to use gestures when communicating with their 14-month-old infants (Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009). Further, the infants' use of gestures at 14 months in high-SES families was linked to a larger vocabulary at 54 months. ? Chomsky (1957) proposed that humans are biologically ?prewired? to learn language at a certain time and in a certain way. He said that children are born into the world with a language acquisition device (LAD), a biological endowment that enables the child to detect the various features and rules of language. ? Phonemes- the basic sound units of a language ? First words occur between 10-15 months ? Overextension- the tendency to apply a word to an object that is inappropriate for the words meaning ? Under extension-the tendency to apply a word too narrowly. ? Broca's area, an area in the left frontal lobe of the brain that is involved in producing words; and ? Wernicke's area, a region of the brain's left hemisphere that is involved in language comprehension ? Damage to either of these areas produces types of aphasia, a loss or impairment of language processing. Individuals with damage to Broca's area have difficulty producing speech but can comprehend what others say; those with damage to Wernicke's area have poor comprehension and often produce fluent but nonsensical speech. ? child-directed speech, language spoken in a higher pitch than normal, using simple words and sentences ? recasting- rephrasing something the child has said VOCABULARY: ? 1 ? Cephalocaudal pattern ? The sequence in which the earliest growth occurs at the top-the head- with physical growth in size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually working from top to bottom. ? 2 ? Proximodistal pattern ? The sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves towards the extremities ? 3 ? Lateralization ? Specialization of functions in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other ? 4 ? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) ? A condition that occurs when an infant stops breathing, usually during the night and suddenly dies without an apparent cause. ? 5 ? Dynamic Systems Theory ? The perspective on motor development that seeks to explain how motor tendencies are assembled for perceiving and acting ? 6 ? Gross motor skills ? Motor skills that involve large muscle activities such as walking ? 7 ? Fine motor skills ? Motor skills that involve more finely tuned movements such as finger dexterity ? 8 ? Sensation ? The product of the interaction between information and the sensory receptors the eyes ears tongue nostrils and skin ? 9 ? Perception ? The view that perception functions to bring organisms in contact with the environment and to increase adaptation ? 10 ? Visual preference method ? A method used to determine whether infants can distinguish one stimulus from another by measuring the length of time they attend to different stimuli ? 11 ? Habituation ? Decreased responsiveness to a stimuli after repeated presentations of the stimulus ? 12 ? Dishabituation ? Recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation ? 13 ? Intermodal perception ? The ability to relate and integrate information from two or more sensory modalities such as vision and hearing ? 14 ? Schemes ? In Paige's theory actions or mental representations that organize knowledge ? 15 ? Assimilation ? Piagetian concept of using existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences ? 16 ? Accommodation ? Piagetian concept of adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences ? 17 ? Organization ? Piagets concept of grouping isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher order more smoothly functioning cognitive system. ? 18 ? Equilibrium ? A mechanism that Piaget propose to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next ? 19 ? Sensorimotor stage ? The first of Piagets stages which lasts from birth to about. 2 years of age infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with motoric actions ? 20 ? Object permanence ? The piagetian term for understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen heard or touched. ? 21 ? A not b error ? Also called Ab error the term used to describe the tendency of infants to reach where an object was located earlier rather than where the object was last hidden ? 22 ? Core knowledge approach ? States that infants are born with domain specific innate knowledge systems. ? 23 ? Attention ? The focusing of mental resources on select information ? 24 ? Joint attention ? Process that occurs when individuals focus on the same object and an ability to track another's behavior is present on individual directs another's attention and reciprocal interaction is present. ? 25 ? Deferred imitation ? Imitation that occurs after a delay of hours or days ? 26 ? Memory ? A central feature of cognitive development pertaining to all situations in which an individual retains information over time. ? 27 ? Implicit memory ? Memory without conscious recollection, involves skills and routine procedures that are automatically performed. ? 28 ? Explicit memory ? Memory of facts and experiences that individuals consciously know and can state ? 29 ? Language ? A form of commutation whether spoken, written, or signed that is based on a system of symbols. Language consists of the words used by a community and the rules for varying and combining them ? 30 ? Infinite generativity ? The ability to produced an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules. ? 31 ? Telegraphic speech ? The use of short and precise words without grammatical markers such as articles, auxillary verbs and other conectives ? 32 ? Language acquisition device (LAD) ? Chomskys term that describes a biological endowment enabling he child to detect the features and rules of language including phonology syntax and semantics. ? 33 ? Child-directed speech ? Language spoken in a higher pitch than normal with simple words and sentences. ? 34 ? Frontal lobe ? Excecuted and cognitive functions, logic memory learning cognitive skills ? 35 ? Parietal lobe ? Body senses there are two ? 36 ? Occipital lobe ? Vision ? 37 ? Temporal ? There are two hearing CHAPTER 4 SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY Emotional and Personality Development ? Emotion is feeling, or affect, that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to them. Infants display a number of emotions early in their development, such as crying, smiling, and fear. Two fears that infants develop are stranger anxiety and separation from a caregiver. As infants develop, it is important for them to increase their emotion regulation. ? Temperament is an individual's behavioral style and characteristic way of emotional responding. Chess and Thomas classified infants as (1) easy, (2) difficult, or (3) slow to warm up. Kagan proposed that inhibition to the unfamiliar is an important temperament category. Rothbart and Bates emphasized that effortful control (self-regulation) is an important temperament dimension. Goodness of fit can be an important aspect of a child's adjustment. ? Erikson argued that an infant's first year is characterized by the stage of trust versus mistrust. Independence becomes a central theme in the second year of life, which is characterized by the stage of autonomy versus shame and doubt. Social Orientation and Attachment ? Infants show a strong interest in the social world and are motivated to understand it. Infants are more socially sophisticated and insightful at an earlier age than previously envisioned. ? Attachment is a close emotional bond between two people. In infancy, contact comfort and trust are important in the development of attachment. Securely attached babies use the caregiver, usually the mother, as a secure base from which to explore the environment. Three types of insecure attachment are avoidant, resistant, and disorganized. Caregivers of secure babies are more sensitive to the babies' signals and are consistently available to meet their needs. Social Contexts ? The transition to parenthood requires considerable adaptation and adjustment on the part of parents. In general, mothers spend more time in caregiving than fathers; fathers tend to engage in more physical, playful interaction with infants than mothers. ? The quality of child care is uneven, and child care remains a controversial topic. Quality child care can be achieved and seems to have few adverse effects on children. Notes: ? emotion as feeling, or affect, that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or her, especially to his or her well-being ? positive emotions: includes pleasant ones such as happiness, joy love ? negative emotions: anxiety anger guild ? Babies have at least three types of cries: ? Basic cry: A rhythmic pattern that usually consists of a cry, followed by a briefer silence, then a shorter whistle that is somewhat higher in pitch than the main cry, then another brief rest before the next cry. Some experts believe that hunger is one of the conditions that incite the basic cry. ? Anger cry: A variation of the basic cry, with more excess air forced through the vocal cords. ? Pain cry: A sudden long, initial loud cry followed by the holding of the breath; no preliminary moaning is present. The pain cry may be stimulated by physical pain or by any high-intensity stimulus. ? Reflexive smile: A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli and appears during the first month after birth, usually during sleep. ? Social smile: A smile that occurs in response to an external stimulus, typically a face in the case of the young infant. Social smiling occurs as early as 4 weeks in response to a caregiver's voice ? stranger anxiety, in which an infant shows fear and wariness of strangers. ? separation protest?crying when the caregiver leaves. ? . Social referencing involves ?reading? emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation. ? During the first year, the infant gradually develops an ability to inhibit, or minimize, the intensity and duration of emotional reactions ? temperament, or individual differences in behavioral styles, emotions, and characteristic ways of responding o Chess and Thomas' Classification Psychiatrists Alexander Chess and Stella Thomas (Chess & Thomas, 1977; Thomas & Chess, 1991) identified three basic types, or clusters, of temperament: o Easy child: This child is generally in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, and adapts easily to new experiences. o Difficult child: This child reacts negatively and cries frequently, engages in irregular daily routines, and is slow to accept change. o Slow-to-warm-up child: This child has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, and displays a low intensity of mood. ? Goodness of fit refers to the match between a child's temperament and the environmental demands the child must cope with. ? Trust?Erik Erikson (1968), o the first year of life is characterized by the trust-versus-mistrust stage of development. Upon emerging from a life of regularity, warmth, and protection in the mother's womb, the infant faces a world that is less secure. Erikson proposed that infants learn trust when they are cared for in a consistently nurturant manner. If the infant is not well fed and kept warm on a consistent basis, a sense of mistrust is likely to develop. o In Erikson's view, the issue of trust versus mistrust is not resolved once and for all in the first year of life. It arises again at each successive stage of development, and the outcomes can be positive or negative. ? Social Orientation? o Infants are captivated by the social world early on o Face to face play characterizes caregivers interactions 2-3 months o The interactions with peers increase in late half of 2nd year o Between 18-24 mo imitative and reciprocal play increases Attachment is a close emotional bond between two people. There is no shortage of theories about infant attachment. Three theorists , Freud, Erikson, and Bowlby?proposed influential views of attachment. ? Freud theorized that infants become attached to the person or object that provides them with oral satisfaction. For most infants, this is the mother, since she is most likely to feed the infant. ? John Bowlby (1969, 1989) also stresses the importance of attachment in the first year of life and the responsiveness of the caregiver. Bowlby believes that both the infant and its primary caregivers are biologically predisposed to form attachments. ? Bowlby's conceptualization of attachment (Schaffer, 1996): o Phase 1: From birth to 2 months. Infants instinctively direct their attachment to human figures. Strangers, siblings, and parents are equally likely to elicit smiling or crying from the infant. o Phase 2: From 2 to 7 months. Attachment becomes focused on one figure, usually the primary caregiver, as the baby gradually learns to distinguish familiar from unfamiliar people. o Phase 3: From 7 to 24 months. Specific attachments develop. With increased locomotor skills, babies actively seek contact with regular caregivers, such as the mother or father. o Phase 4: From 24 months on. Children become aware of other people's feelings, goals, and plans and begin to take these into account in forming their own actions. ? Bowlby argued that infants develop an internal working model of attachment, a simple mental model of the caregiver, their relationship to him or her, and the self as deserving of nurturant care. ? Ainsworth created theStrange Situation, an observational measure of infant attachment in which the infant experiences a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with the caregiver and an adult stranger in a prescribed order. o Securely attached babies use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment. When in the presence of their caregiver, securely attached infants explore the room and examine toys that have been placed in it. When the caregiver departs, securely attached infants might protest mildly; when the caregiver returns, these infants reestablish positive interaction with her, perhaps by smiling or climbing on her lap. Subsequently, they often resume playing with the toys in the room. o Insecure avoidant babies show insecurity by avoiding the caregiver. In the Strange Situation, these babies engage in little interaction with the caregiver, are not distressed when she leaves the room, usually do not reestablish contact with her upon her return, and may even turn their back on her. If contact is established, the infant usually leans away or looks away. o Insecure resistant babies often cling to the caregiver and then resist her by fighting against the closeness, perhaps by kicking or pushing away. In the Strange Situation, these babies often cling anxiously to the caregiver and don't explore the playroom. When the caregiver leaves, they often cry loudly and push away if she tries to comfort them upon her return. o Insecure disorganized babies are disorganized and disoriented. In the Strange Situation, these babies might appear dazed, confused, and fearful. To be classified as disorganized, babies must show strong patterns of avoidance and resistance or display certain specified behaviors, such as extreme fearfulness around the caregiver. ? Social Contex: o The Family: a constellation of subsystems, o A complex whole made of interrelated interactive parts o Defined in terms of generatively, gender, role o Subsystems have reciprocal influences on each other o , Jay Belsky (1981) stresses that marital relations, parenting, and infant behavior and development can have both direct and indirect effects on each other o Parenting? should be an agreement with both parties on how to raise the child usually comes with their own baggage on what parenting should be o C.B.D? child starts forming their first social relationships imitating role models VOCABULARY ? Emotion ? Feeling or affect that occurs when a person is In A state or interaction that is important to them. Emotion is characterized by behavior that reflects (expresses) the pleasantness or unpleasantness of the state a person is in or the transactions being experienced ? 2 ? Basic cry ? A rhythmic pattern usually consisting of a cry, a briefer silence a shorter inspiratory whistle that is higher pitched than the main cry and then a brief rest before the next cry ? 3 ? Anger cry ? A cry similar to the basic cry with more excess air forced through the vocal cords ? 4 ? Pain cry ? A sudden appearance of loud crying without preliminary moaning followed by breath holding ? 5 ? Reflexive smile ? A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli it appears during the first month after birth usually during sleep ? 6 ? Social smile ? A smile in response to an external stimulus which early in development is usually a face ? 7 ? Stranger anxiety ? An infants fear and wariness of strangers it tends to appear in the second half of the first year of life ? 8 ? Separation protest ? An infants distressed crying when the caregiver leaves ? 9 ? Social referencing ? Reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation. ? 10 ? Temperament ? An individuals. Heavier oak style and characteristic way of emotionally responding ? 11 ? Easy child ? A child who is generally in a positive mood who quickly establishes regular routines in infancy and who adapts easily to new experiences ? 12 ? Difficult child ? A child who tends to react negatively and cry frequently who engages in irregular daily routines and who is lips low to accept new experiences ? 13 ? Slow to warm up child ? A child who has a low activity level is somewhat negative and displays a low intensity of mood ? 14 ? Goodness of fit ? Refers to the match between a child's temperament and the environmental demands with which the child must cope. ? 15 ? Attachment ? A close emotional bond between two people ? 16 ? Strange situation ? An observational measure of infant attachment that requires the infant to move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with the caregiver and an adult stranger in a prescribed order ? 17 ? Securely attatched babies ? Babies that use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment ? 18 ? Insecure avoidant babies ? Babies that show insecurity by avoiding the mother ? 19 ? Insecure resistant babies ? Babies that often cling to the caregiver then resist her by fighting against the closeness oerhaps by kicking or pushing away ? 20 ? Insecure disorganized babies ? Babies that show insecurity by being disorganized and disoriented ? 21 ? Reciprocal socialization ? Socialization that is bidirectional, children socialize parents just as parents socialize children ? 22 ? Scaffolding ? Parents time interactions so that infants experience turn taking with the parents Irene
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