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Second Great Awakening
Religious revival in the 1820s and 1830s, promised access to salvation and proved to have an impact on reform movements including efforts to combat drinking, sex, and slavery
sought to reverse the subordination of women and to eliminate the enslavement of blocks by changing laws, social institutions, attitudes and customs
Utopian/ Communal Movement
Transcendentalists believed ppl should look within themselves. tried to change the world by organizing utopian communities that tried to be perfect examples to point others in the right direction
John Humphrey NY 1848 opposed owning individual property and blamed marriage as the root of all greed. members of his community gave up their property and were allowed to fuck any consenting adults
Seneca Falls Decoration of Sentiments
issued in 1848 in Seneca Falls, NY at the first women's rights convention. Document resembled declaration of Independence but demanded equal rights for women including franchise
Missouri Compromise of 1820
Congressional compromise by Henry Clay that paired Missouri's entrance to the union as a slave state with Maine's entrance as a free state. made Missouri's southern border line between free/slave states
term coined in 1845 by John L. O'Sullivan to justify American expansion. It was the nation's "manifest Destiny" to transport it's values and civilization Westward. American conquest west was part of a Divine plan.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo
Feb. 1848 treaty that ended the Mexican-American War. Mexico gave up all claims to Texas north of the Rio grande and New Mexico and Cali. U.S. agreed to pay $15 million and assume American claims against Mexico
Mexican War, Feb. 2, 1848
Polk wanted Mexican territory when Mexico wouldn't sell he sent troops to Mexico in secret, when Mexico fought back Polk told congress that Mexico had "passed the border and she'd American blood on American soil" Congress passed declaration of war
California Gold Rush
Mining rush initiated by James Marshall's discovery of Gold in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada in 1848. Hopes of striking rich drew 250,000 ppl to Cali, accelerated push for statehood
Machine for separating cotton from seeds that clung to the fiber. 1793 Eli Whitney built a smaller better cotton gin
Theory of slavery that emphasized reciprocal duties and obligations between masters and thier slaves, slaves provided labor and obedience. Masters provided basic care and direction. Whites employed this concpet to deny slave system was brutal
Laws enacted in southern states in 1820s and 1830s that required total submission of slaves. Attacks by antislavery activists and slaves convinced southern legislature they must strengthen institution of slavery
Nat Turner's Rebellion
August 1831 slave Nat Turner led a rebellion killing 57 white men. Local militia quickly killed and captured rebels except for Turner. When he was captured he was tried and executed. Black violence haunted white imagination after this
idea that government is subject to the will of the people. Applied to the territories - the residents should determine through legislature weather to allow slavery
Compromise of 1850
laws passed in 1850 meant to resolve the dispute over the spread of slavery in the territories. Key elements admission on Cali as a free state, fugitive slave act.
Fugitive Slave Act
Law included in compromise of 1850 to attract southern support for legislature package. strict provisions for capturing runaway slaves provoked outrage in North and intensified antislavery sentiment in region
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Popular anti- slavery novel by Harreit Beecher Stowe, published in 1852. Helped to sodify northern sentiment against slavery and to assure white southern no sympathy remained for them in the free states
1854 law that divided Indian Territory into Kansas and Nebraska, repealed the Missouri Compromise, and left the new territories to decide the issue of slavery on the basis of popular Sovereignty. led to lots of bloodshed
Bloody struggle between proslavery and antislavery factions in Kansas in the fall of 1854 following it's organization as a territory. corrupt elections led to proslavery but free-soil Kansas established rival territory, violence broke out
Stephen A. Douglas
Illinois democratic Senator defeated democratic canidate for presidency. " There can be no neutrals in the (civil) war only Patriots and traitors"
antislavery party formed in 1853 following passage of the Kansas - Nebraska Act. Republicans attempted to untie all those who opposed extension of slavery into any territory of the US
Slaves owe thier masters respect and obedience
"Free-Soil, free speech, free labor, free men" Free-Soil party nominated Democrat Matin Van Buren who lost
Dred Scott Decision
1857 Supreme court Decision that ruled Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. Court ruled against Scott who claimed that travels with his master to a free state mad him free, denied federal gov right to exclude slavery and declared blacks weren't citz
Harper's Ferry Raid
John Brown, abolitionist, Oct. 16, 1859 took 21 men including 5 black men to invade Harper's Ferry, Virginia. Tried for treason and murder. Told court "if I should forget my life for the ends of Justice let it be done"
elected president in 1860
Confederate States of America
we're formed seceding from the union, thought Republican president meant end of slavery. no longer had political protection from Union. Feb, 7 1861
withdraw from the united states. Confederacy and Union 1860-61
union fort on an island at the entrance to Charleston harbor in South Carolina. After Confederate leaders learned that pres Lincoln intended to resupply Ft. Sumter, Confederate forced attached for on April 12, 1861 marking start of civil war
Contraband of War
General Benjamin F. Butler's term for runaway slaves who were considered confiscated property of war, not fugatives, and put to work in Union army. step towards emancipation
Pres. Lincoln's proclamation issued on Jan. 1, 1863 declaring all slaves in Confederate controlled territory free, but not in loyal border states.
Free-Soil party is founded
Zachary Taylor is elected president
Dred Scott decision
Congress rejects Lecompton Constitution
Panic of 1857
John Brown raids Harper's Ferry
Abraham Lincoln is elected president
South Carolina seceeds from Union
Six southern states succeed, Confederate states of America are formed
Attack of ft Sumter
Four upper states join Confederacy
Emancipation Proclamation is issued
Vicksburg falls to union
Lee is defeated at battle of Gettysburg
Richmond falls to Union forces
Lee surrenders at Appomttox Court House
Lincoln is assassinated
Andrew Jackson becomes president
Impeachment trial of President Johnson
in the disputed presidential election of 1876 Rutherford Hays is declared the winner
Siege of Vicksburg
Six-week siege by General Ulysses S Grant intended to strave out Vicksburg Mississippi. July 4, 1863. 30,000 con troops holding the city surrender. Victory gave union Mississippi River and Getysburg. major turning point in war
Battle of Gettysburg
Battle at Gettysburg Pennsylvania (July 1-3 1863) between Union forces under General George G. Meade and Confederate forces -Robert E. lee. union won, Lee lost 1/3 of their men
laws passed by state government in the South in 1865 that sought to keep ex-slaves subordinate to whites. at the core of the codes was a desire to force freedmen back to plantations
Passed in 1866 made all all native- born or naturalized persons US citizens and prohibited states from taking the rights of citizens. aimed to provide garuntee of equality before the law for black citizens
passed Feb. 1869 prohibiting states from depriving any citizen of the right to vote because of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." extended black sufferage but did not include right for women to vote
abolished slavery and involuntary servitude except for cases punishable for a crime
labor system that emerged in the South during reconstruction. Under this system, planters divided their plantations into small farms that freedmen rented, paying with a share of crops each year. Gave blacks freedom but we're still dependent on White
Ku Klux Klan
social club of Confederate veterans that quickly developed into a paramilitary organization supporting Democrats. with too few union troops in the South to control the region, the Klan went on a rampage of violence to restore white supremacy
Name taken by southern Democrats who harnessed white rage in order to overthrow Republican rule and black political power and thus, they believed southern civilization
Compromise of 1877
Informal agreement in which Democrats agreed not to block Rutherford Hay's inaguration if Hays vowed not to use army to in the South "let South lie" and to provide the South with substantial federal railroads. compromise brought reconstruction to end
How did slaveholders work to solidify slavery's existence during the early 19th century?
servitude and sharecropping
What types of resistence did slaves participate in, and why did it rarley take form of rebellion?
conditions gave rebels almost no success. whites outnumbered blacks and we're armed there was poor communication between plantations and little wilderness for rebels to retreat to
What types of rebellion did slaves participate in?
Physical, cultural, spiritual
Why did the Whig party disentegrate in theb1850s?
Both parties campingned for white voters, politics became aggressively democratic, Pro-Slavery even non slave owning men voted democratic in hopes of one day having that lifestyle
What role did African Americans play in Civil War?
slavery is why some states seceeded, they ran and fought for their freedom, we're contraband of war, eventually soldiers
How did Northern whites attitudes towards emancipation change over the course of the war?
wanted slavery to end didn't want to do anything about it.
Why and how did the government retreat from defending African Americans civil rights in the 1870s?
Compromise of 1877. Hays agreed to let the South be in exchange for the presidency
Lincoln's 10% Plan
Property and political rights, renounce secession and except emancipation as long as it gets 10% of voting population
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