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The process by which people receive, organize and interpret
information from their environment
Generalization about a group of people.
Individual differences are obscured.
Occur when one attribute of a person or situation is used to develop an overall impression of the individual or situation.
Important in the performance appraisal process.
The tendency to single out those aspects of a situation, person, or object that are consistent with one’s needs, values, or attitudes.
The assignment of one’s personal attributes to other individuals.
can be controlled by high degree of self-awareness and empathy.
Occurs when an individual is compared to other people on the
same characteristics on which the others rank higher or lower.
The tendency to create or find in another situation or individual that which one expected to find.
A person’s systematic attempt to behave in ways that create and maintain desired impressions in others’ eyes.
perceptual interpretation by focusing on how people attempt to:
Understand the causes of a certain event.
Assess responsibility for the outcomes of the event.
Evaluate the personal qualities of the people involved in the event.
Applies to the evaluation of someone else’s behavior
Attributing success to the influence of situational
Attributing failure to the influence of personal factors.
Applies to the evaluation of our own behavior.
Attributing success to the influence of personal factors.
Attributing failure to the influence of situational factors
The profile of characteristics that makes one person unique from others
Being outgoing, sociable, assertive.
Being good-natured, trusting, cooperative.
Being responsible, dependable, persistent.
Being unworried, secure, relaxed
Being imaginative, curious, broad-minded.
Locus of control
individual’s generalized belief about internal (self) vs. external (situation or others) control
Approach situations logically and thoughtfully.
Are capable of lying to achieve personal goals.
Are rarely swayed by loyalty, friendships, past promises, or others’ opinions.
Are skilled at influencing others.
Try to exploit loosely structured situations.
Accept direction imposed by others in loosely structured situations.
Work hard to do well in highly structured situations.
Are strongly guided by ethical considerations.
Are unlikely to lie or cheat.
predisposition to respond in a positive or negative way to someone or something in one’s environment.
positive or negative evaluation
Are more specific and less stable than values
Direct experience and social learning
A state of tension when there is a conflict between an individual’s attitudes and
his or her behavior.
The degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs.
Loyalty of an individual to the organization
A willingness to “go beyond the call of duty” or “ go the extra mile” in one’s work.
are strong positive or negative feelings directed toward something or someone.
Generalized positive or negative feelings or states of mind.
They are less intense than emotions
lack a clear source; it’s often hard to identify
Ability to understand emotions in ourselves and others and to use that understanding to manage relationships effectively.
A state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities.
Occurs at moderate stress levels by prompting increased work effort, stimulating creativity, and encouraging greater diligence
Dysfunctional levels of stress negatively impact both the individual and the organization.
proposes that people are motivated by five levels of needs:
Desire for physiological and material well-being.
Desire for satisfying interpersonal relationships.
Desire for continued personal growth and development.
Hygiene Factors - job context – source of dissatisfaction
Motivational Factors – job content – source of satisfaction
The desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve
problems, or to master complex tasks.
The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with others
The desire to control others, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for others.
People gauge the fairness of their work outcomes in relation to others.
Felt negative inequality and felt positive inequality
Felt negative inequity
Individual feels he/she has received relatively less than others in
proportion to work inputs.
Felt positive inequity
Individual feels he/she has received relatively more than others in proportion to work inputs
A person’s motivation is a multiplicative function of expectancy, instrumentality, and valence
➢ Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence
The process of arranging work tasks for individuals and groups
• Jobs should be designed so that both performance and satisfaction result
Degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities and involves
the use of a number of different skills and talents of the individual.
Increases task variety by periodically shifting workers among jobs involving different tasks.
Increases task variety by combining into one job two or more tasks
that were previously assigned to separate workers.
The practice of enhancing job content by building motivating factors such as responsibility, achievement, recognition, and personal growth into the job.
Adds planning and evaluating duties to the job content.
Any scheduling of work that allows a full-time job to be, completed in fewer than the standard five days.
“4/40” is most common form.
-Productivity and Turnover
-Higher satisfaction, improved sleep
Gives individuals a daily choice in the timing of their work
One full-time job is assigned to two or more persons who
divide the work according to agreed-upon hours.
Work done at home or in a remote location via use of computers and advanced communication linkages with a central office or other employment locations.
A small group of people with complementary skills who interact and work with one another to achieve shared goals
The tendency of people to work less hard in a group than they would individually.
Officially recognized and supported by the organization
• Specifically created to perform essential tasks
Managers and leaders serve “linking pin” roles
Emerge and coexist as a shadow to the formal structure and without any assigned purpose or endorsement.
Types of informal groups
• Friendship groups • Interest groups
• Support groups
make decisions about planning, doing, and evaluating their daily work.
Teams of people who work together and solve problems through largely computer-mediated rather than face-to-face interactions
collaborative way to gather and analyze data to improve teamwork.
Team building occurs during an offsite retreat.
The manager, team leader, or members take responsibility for
ongoing team building.
Members engage in physically challenging situations that require teamwork.
Members are similar with respect to such variables as age, gender, race, experience, ethnicity, and culture.
Members are diverse in demography, experiences, life styles, and cultures, among other variables.
The tendency for diversity to make it harder for team members to work together, even though the diversity itself expands the skills and perspectives available for problem solving.
represent beliefs about how group or team members are expected to behave.
rules or standards of conduct
Ethics norms, Organizational and personal pride norms, High-achievement norms, Support and helpfulness norms, Improvement and change norms.
degree to which members are attached to and motivated to remain a part of the team
tendency of cohesive group members to lose their critical evaluative capabilities.
Illusion of, invulnerability, Rationalization, Illusion of morality, Shared stereotypes, Direct pressure, Self-censorship, Illusion of unanimity, Mind guards.
the forces within the individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work
Degree to which the job requires the completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work; one that involves doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome.
Degree to which the job is important and involves a meaningful contribution to the organization or society in general.
Degree to which the job gives the employee substantial freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures used in carrying it out.
Degree to which carrying out the work activities provides direct and clear information to the employee regarding how well the job has been done.
Decision by lack of response
One idea after another is suggested without any discussion-taking place; when the group finally accepts the idea, all others have been bypassed and discarded by simple lack of response rather than by critical evaluation.
Decision by authority rule
The chairperson, manager, or leader makes a decision for the group.
Decision by minority rule
Two or three people are able to dominate or “railroad” the group into making a decision to which they agree.
Decision by majority rule
Formal voting may take place, or members may be polled to find the majority viewpoint.
Decision by consensus
Discussion leads to one alternative being favored by most
members and the other members agree to support it.
Decision by unanimity
All group members agree totally on the course of action to be taken.
Group members actively generate as many ideas and alternatives as possible, and they do so relatively quickly and without inhibitions
Computer-aided approach to brainstorming
Anonymity reduces effects of shyness
pillover effects of one’s emotions and mood onto others.
relates to the need to show certain emotions in order to perform a job well.
consists of different values, personalities, experiences, demographics, and cultures among members.
Members ignore obvious danger, take extreme risk, and are overly optimistic.
Members discredit and explain away warning contrary to group thinking.
Members believe their decisions are morally correct, ignoring the ethical consequences of their decisions.
The group constructs negative sterotypes of rivals outside the group.
Members pressure any in the group who express arguments against the group's stereotypes, illusions, or commitments, viewing such opposition as disloyalty.
Members withhold their dissenting views and counter- arguments.
Members perceive falsely that everyone agrees with the group's decision; silence is seen as consent.
Some members appoint themselves to the role of protecting the group from adverse information that might threaten group complacency.
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