High and Low Context model of culture was developed by
High and Low context of culture addresses:
differences in communication styles
_____________ power distance indicates that employees would generally accept work assignments from their supervisors without question
High power distance
_________ power distance indicates that employess generally have about the same amount of power as their boss
Low power distance
Leaders from individualist cultures would be best characterized by
What are the 5 cultural dimensions
Harry Triandis proposes that the concept of uncertainty avoidance can be further refined by:
introducing the concept of tight and loose cultures to uncertainty avoidance
In vertical individualistic cultures:
the individual is seen as unique and superior to others
She works in an company that focuses heavily on team interaction and job performance. Which of the Trompenaars cultures best describes her organization
organization that defines their culture by having strong powerful leaders that take care of the needs of individuals in the organization is characterized
organization that posesses clear organizational structures, well defined roles and focus on getting the job done
Based on GLOBE findings the US is among the highest on
Assertiveness and performance
a country characterized with a high power distance....
communication is typically directed only one way
According to GLOBE findings, _____ is generally valued in most cultures
team based leadership
A Gallup survey reported a link between diversity to what organizational outcome?
Increase in employee satisfaction
The modern scientific study of leadership can be divided into 3 eras which are
The belief that leaders are born rather than made is part of which approach to leadership?
Studies conducted at ____ are among the best known behavioural approaches to leadership
THE Ohio State
manager who believe in treating employees as equals, is friendly and approachable and puts the work groups ideas into operation.what leadership style
The primary assumption of the contingency approach to leadership is
what works depends on the situation
The first researcher to implement the contingency approach and develop a leadership theory based on the approach was
According to the Contingency model
if the leaders style matches the situation, the leader will be effective
LPC stands for
Least Preferred Coworker
A high LPC leader draws self esteem from
getting along with people
when evaluating a coworker and having negative views of that person (incompetent, cold, untrustworthy) this person is most likely
a low LPC
According to Fiedler, _____ is the most important factor in any leadership situation
According to Fiedler, the least influential element of the leadership situation is....
According to the normative decision model, leaders should adjust their decision style depending on____ and ___
the need for a quality decisions; likelihood that employee will accept the decision
In Path-Goal theory, ____and ____ determine which leadership behavior should be used
Nature of the task/follower characteristics
hard time gettin along with boss and cant seem to get on the right projects to show off his skills, and demonstrate potential performance. LMX is likely
not in the boss's in group
Primary reason boys are more competitive and aggressive than girls is that:
typical male genetic traits are reinforced by society
Abilities tend to be:
Stable over time
Which of the traits generally cannot be acquired through time and appropriate experience?
Which one of the following influences a person's value system?
Hard work, patriotism and frugality are values typically held by people in which of the following age groups?
Those over 65
US laws forbid business people to bribe others even in cultures where bribery is expected or necessary. This approach to ethics reflects a___ view of ethics
__ is increasingly being suggested as being more important than__
ability to relate to others;intelligence
Which of the following is not a component of emotional intelligence?
While addressing employees after 9/11, opening expressed sorrow, and embraced grief stricken employees. This behavior is...
high level of emotional intelligence
_ and_ are often terms used to describe creativity
divergent; lateral thinking
Marta has just been appointed to a top level executive position in her company. Which of the following leadership skills is she most likely to need and use?
Most organizations provide skills and training to their employees and leaders because:
skills can be learned
Which of the Big 5 personality dimensions is most strongly correlated to job performance?
People with_ believe that the event around them are the result of their actions
Internal locus of control
Which of the following best describes Type A's
try to do more in less time
Power and influence differ in that
influence refers to changing the course of an action
Goals set for team members, informed of goals; several members think they are not reasonable, but they go along with them. This is a reaction of.....
Lee has made several written and oral requests for his employees to undertake a new project. Although he has not received any feedback from his group, the task doesn't appear to be started. This is an example of
The leaders power increases when employees
are committed to her decisions
In _ cultures, power bases are stable, and upward mobility is limited
high power distance
All managers have access to which source of individual power?
The power of celebrities to influence others is based on which source of individual power?
Which one of the following is NOT one of the influence tactics
Teams can gain power by reducing uncertainty for others in their organization. Which of the following is not one of the uncertainty reduction methods
preventing change from happening
The CEO of a company that diversity is a very important and strategic issue. She creates a team to make diversity related recommendations and has the team report directly to her on a regular basis. The CEO is using which organizational source of power to assure that the team has power
Power corruption is primarily due to:
Too much power without accountability
What was the attitude of the framers of the US Constitution regarding power?
Power should not be concentrated
The key organizational factor in abuse of power is:
Abusive and corrupt leaders intimidate their followers into silence and then consider the silence and lack of responsiveness as a sign of their followers incompetence, therefore asking them even less for input. This is an example of
self fulfilling prophecy
Which one of the following is not an organizational factor that contributes to power corruption
performance based hiring
Which is NOT a method of employee participation?
_ and _ are 2 of the criteria managers should use to determine when to involve employees in decision making
task complexity; time
Li is under pressue to make a quick decision on a project with which she has considerable expertise and experience. Her team is inexperienced and generally supportive and she needs the members strong commitment to implement her decision. In this situation, Li should
allow for employee participation
Which cultural values will least likely support employee participation and empowerment?
high power distance
Which of the following is not one of the benefits of delegation?
increase leaders power
Alberto is an overworked manager whi is trying to reduce his workload. He decides to assign all the tasks that he does not like and take a long time to his subordinates. What is Alberto doing?
dumping on his subordinates
Leaders should generally not delegate which type of tasks or decisions?
Selena has a new project for a key client that she needs to delegate to one of her employees. This is a complex and important project. Which of the following employee employees should she pick?
Ken who is competent and eager but has recently failed at a task so that she can give him a chance to recover
Which one of the following is not one of the typical excuses managers use for not delegating
the organization does not allow it
__ are more likely to find it difficult to delegate task to their followers
Type A leaders
Team members have all the following characteristics, EXCEPT
members are accountable to a manager
Which is not an aspect of building trust within self managed work teams
Curt was recently appointed as team leader of an inter-departmental self managed team. He recently facilitated a team meeting whereby he helped all team members to understand one another's tasks. His effort can be best categorized as__
a cross training session
Which term is most often used when describing the role of leaders in teams?
Which one of the following is NOT one of the roles of leaders in a team environment?
Setting goals for the team
__ is one of the most common driving forces for change
In _ cultures, organizational change can be perceived as a threat
low tolerance for ambuguity
3M implemented the Six Sigma, a process that relies on precision, consistency and repetition, which transformed the organizations culture. Which type of change best represents the 3M transformation?
Preparing people in understanding the need for change describes the _ stage of kurt lewins model for change
The leaders role in the first stage of change is to:
help followers realize the need for change
Whereas _ change helps leaders chart the course for change, _ change is frequently sudden and unpredictable
The primary organizational cause for resistance is due to _
Which is NOT an individual factor causing resistance to change?
People who have _ and _ are more comfortable with change and more likely to adapt it
an internal locus of control; high self monitors
All of the following EXCEPT_ are potential to overcome resistance to change
change the situation
Which one of the following is NOT an element of a clear visions?
Easy to achieve
Practices of exemplary leadership include:
creating a shared vision
Jeff Immelt, CEO of GE, changed the culture of the organization by teaching employees team skills and evaluating on those skills. Those who showed the best potential and performance were promoted to lead others. This process is best represented by which of Kouzes and Posners leadership skills
Enabling followers through collaboration and empowerment
Which leadership style often impedes the creative process and open exchange of ideas
Leaders can take numerous steps to build an open and supportive culture for ongoing organizational learning. Which action is NOT included in the recomendations?
reliance on tried and true ideas
According to Fred Luthans, effective managers are those who:
take care of their employees
Which one is NOT an element of the definition of leadership effectiveness
While_ is an important aspect of leadership effectiveness, the key element is _
The key argument against the impact of leadership centers around the idea that...
social and environmental factors affect organizations more than leaders
in a results oriented organization that focuses on quality and teamwork, which level of organizational structure should assume primary responsibility
TylerWinkler, Senior VP of sales for Secure Networks, takes an approach wherebyemployees “make your numbers in three months or you’re out” through thisprocess he measures employee performance, provides detailed feedback andtraining to improve sales..Which function of how leaders shape organizational culture best describesTyler’s approach:
creating an effective rewards system
AMexican manager is upset at the fact that his German colleague jumps right intobusiness without taking the time to get to know him and establish arelationship. The German manager is frustrated at how long it takes to getanything done and is pushing for quicker decision making. This culturalconflict can be partially explained by
the fact that Mexico is high context and Germanyis low context
When culture is high in uncertainty avoidance, people are likely to:
search for absolute truths
Power Distance refers to
the extent to which people accept unequal power
Japaneseculture is characterized with strong feelings toward group with clear rank andstatus differentiation as well as an obligation to obey authority. This is bestdescribed as which combination of Taiandis characteristic of culture:
Collectivistic and vertical
As opposed to Hofstede who considers general cultural dimensions and values, Trompenaars and his colleagues have developed model that....
focuses on how national culture affects corporate cultures
According to Trompenaars, incubators are:
egalitarian and focused on taking care of individual needs
eaglyand Johnson found that women tend to use_____ leadership style whereas mentended to use ___ leadership style
people oriented; task focused
Michaelmakes sure that his work unit knows what is expected, schedules the work andsets deadlines, and assigns people to different tasks. Michael is
Accordingto the Path-Goal Theory, the leader must motivate followers by:
strengthening the links among effort, performance, and outcomes
There are 2 reasons why understanding attribution may be helpful in leadership situations. These are:
determining the cause of errors and taking corrective action
JianLi made a mistake in her work and has talked to her manager and apologized forher error. She has always been a very good performer and done well at all ofthe taks that are assigned to he. Her mistake does not impact anyone in herteam. Based on research on attribution and leadership, her manager is morelikely to
Let Jiang Li off easy and assume it was an honest error
Leaderscan help reduce the potential for biases in their attributions about followersby which of the following
awareness and recognition ofbiases
Thebenefits of having a cohesive in-group include all but one of the following
Individual difference characteristics affect a persons behavior most when:
the situation is loosely structured
_____ are often found to be close to their family
The Milenials (Nexters)
The high Machiavellian leader is likely to be _ but not necessarily_
Lee has made serval written and oral requests for his employees toundertake a new project. Although he has not received any feedback from hisgroup, the task does not appear to be even started. This is an example of
Research about the effect of power distribution suggests that
Concentrated power can be detrimental to performance
All employees have access to which source of individual power?
A team leader focuses on assuring that his team members have the latesexpertise not available elsewhere in the organization. He is using whichorganizational source of power to assure that his team has power
which of the following is not one of the ways to help increase the power of teams so that they can be effective?
keep the team away from difficult challenges
The empirical research on empowerment has found;
mixed results for the impact of empowerment
Which dimensions of culture was found to be most receptive to transformational leadership?
__ are ideal situations for the emergence of charismatic leadership:
complex and ambiguous tasks
The _ factor of tranformation leadership develops follower trust, overcomes their resistance to change, and makes it possible for them to consider and undertake change
charisma and inspiration
The __ factor of transformational leadership motivates followers and encourages them to perform better
The charismatic leaders _ motivates followers and creates a self fulfilling prophecy
high self confidence
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