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Organizational Behavior (16th Edition)
Kelli J. Schutte William Jewell College Robbins & Judge Organizational Behavior 14th Edition Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 3?0 Chapter Learning Objectives ¾ After studying this chapter, you should be able to: ? Contrast the three components of an attitude. ? Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior. ? Compare and contrast the major job attitudes. ? Define job satisfaction and show how it can be measured. ? Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction. ? Identify four employee responses to dissatisfaction. ? Show whether job satisfaction is a relevant concept in countries other than the United States. 3?1Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events Three components of an attitude: Attitude Behavioral Cognitive Affective The emotional or feeling segment of an attitudeThe opinion or belief segment of an attitude An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something See E X H I B I T 3?1 3?2Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Does Behavior Always Follow from Attitudes? ¾ Leon Festinger ? No, the reverse is sometimes true! ¾ Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes ? Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, or dissonance, to reach stability and consistency ? Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes, modifying the behaviors, or through rationalization ? Desire to reduce dissonance depends on: ? Importance of elements ? Degree of individual influence ? Rewards involved in dissonance 3?3Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Moderating Variables ¾ The most powerful moderators of the attitude- behavior relationship are: ? Importance of the attitude ? Correspondence to behavior ? Accessibility ? Existence of social pressures ? Personal and direct experience of the attitude BehaviorPredictAttitudes Moderating Variables 3?4Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Predicting Behavior from Attitudes ? Important attitudes have a strong relationship to behavior. ? The closer the match between attitude and behavior, the stronger the relationship: ? Specific attitudes predict specific behavior ? General attitudes predict general behavior ? The more frequently expressed an attitude, the better predictor it is. ? High social pressures reduce the relationship and may cause dissonance. ? Attitudes based on personal experience are stronger predictors. 3?5Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall What are the Major Job Attitudes? ¾ Job Satisfaction ? A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics ¾ Job Involvement ? Degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to self-worth ¾ Psychological Empowerment ? Belief in the degree of influence over the job, competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy 3?6Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Another Major Job Attitude ¾ Organizational Commitment ? Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, while wishing to maintain membership in the organization. ? Three dimensions: ? Affective ? emotional attachment to organization ? Continuance Commitment ? economic value of staying ? Normative ? moral or ethical obligations ? Has some relation to performance, especially for new employees. ? Less important now than in the past ? now perhaps more of an occupational commitment, loyalty to profession rather than a given employer. 3?7Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall And Yet More Major Job Attitudes? ¾ Perceived Organizational Support (POS) ? Degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. ? Higher when rewards are fair, employees are involved in decision making, and supervisors are seen as supportive. ? High POS is related to higher OCBs and performance. ¾ Employee Engagement ? The degree of involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the job. ? Engaged employees are passionate about their work and company. 3?8Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Are These Job Attitudes Really Distinct? ¾ No: these attitudes are highly related. ¾ Variables may be redundant (measuring the same thing under a different name) ¾ While there is some distinction, there is also a lot of overlap. Be patient, OB researchers are working on it! 3?9Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Job Satisfaction ¾ One of the primary job attitudes measured. ? Broad term involving a complex individual summation of a number of discrete job elements. ¾ How to measure? ? Single global rating (one question/one answer) - Best ? Summation score (many questions/one average) - OK ¾ Are people satisfied in their jobs? ? In the U. S., yes, but the level appears to be dropping. ? Results vary by employee facets of the job. ? Pay and promotion are the most problematic elements. See E X H I B I T 3?2 3?10Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall ¾ Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point. ? After about $40,000 per year (in the U.S.), there is no relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction. ? Money may bring happiness, but not necessarily job satisfaction. ¾ Personality can influence job satisfaction. ? Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs. ? Those with positive core self-evaluation are more satisfied with their jobs. Causes of Job Satisfaction See E X H I B I T 3?3 3?11Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Employee Responses to Dissatisfaction Exit ? Behavior directed toward leaving the organization Voice ? Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions Neglect ? Allowing conditions to worsen Loyalty ? Passively waiting for conditions to improve See E X H I B I T 3?4 Active Passive ConstructiveDestructive 3?12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Outcomes of Job Satisfaction ¾ Job Performance ? Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied! ? The causality may run both ways. ¾ Organizational Citizenship Behaviors ? Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions of fairness. ¾ Customer Satisfaction ? Satisfied frontline employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. ¾ Absenteeism ? Satisfied employees are moderately less likely to miss work. 3?13Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall More Outcomes of Job Satisfaction ¾ Turnover ? Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. ? Many moderating variables in this relationship. ? Economic environment and tenure ? Organizational actions taken to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers ¾ Workplace Deviance ? Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize, abuse substances, steal, be tardy, and withdraw. Despite the overwhelming evidence of the impact of job satisfaction on the bottom line, most managers are either unconcerned about or overestimate worker satisfaction. 3?14Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Global Implications ¾ Is Job Satisfaction a U.S. Concept? ? No, but most of the research so far has been in the U.S. ¾ Are Employees in Western Cultures More Satisfied With Their Jobs? ? Western workers appear to be more satisfied than those in Eastern cultures. ? Perhaps because Westerners emphasize positive emotions and individual happiness more than do those in Eastern cultures. See E X H I B I T 3?5 3?15Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Summary and Managerial Implications ¾ Managers should watch employee attitudes: ? They give warnings of potential problems ? They influence behavior ¾ Managers should try to increase job satisfaction and generate positive job attitudes ? Reduces costs by lowering turnover, absenteeism, tardiness, theft, and increasing OCB ¾ Focus on the intrinsic parts of the job: make work challenging and interesting ? Pay is not enough 3?16Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 3?17Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Bob Stretch Robbins & Judge Organizational Behavior 13e PPT Chapter 3: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
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