A capo is a prisoner who acted as a trustee and was given special privileges.
What do former prisoners often say?
"We dislike talking about our experiences. No explanations are needed for those who have been on the inside, and the others will understand neither how we felt then nor how we feel now."
Which prisoners did Frankl feel not survive the camp experience?
the best (those that were kind hearted and not fierce)
Did Frankl work as a psychiatrist in the camp?
No. Only in the last few weeks.
What is the first phase of an inmate's mental reaction to camp life?
What is the "delusion of reprieve?"
The condemned man, immediately before his execution, gets the illusion that he might be reprieved at the very last minute.
What was the first selection?
The verdict made by an officer as to whether or not a person could be useful (work). Those who were not deemed useful were sent straight to the gas chambers.
Could prisoners keep one small thing (e.g. ring, medal)?
No. All of it would be taken from them one way
Who said, "Yes, a man can get used to anything, but do not ask us how."?
Frankl and the other prisoners said it in response to Dostoevski's statement.
What is "A man who looks miserable, down and out, sick and emaciated, and who cannot manage hard physical labor any longer...?"
What is found in the second stage of the prisoner's psychological reactions?
apathy and a blunting of emotion
What is the most painful part of the beatings?
the insult they imply
Was Frankl ever befriended by a Capo?
What did Frankl think of discussions about food?
He thought they were dangerous.
What city did Frankl go through on the way from Auschwitz to Dachau?
What does Frankl believe about love?
"The truth --- that love is the ultimate and the highest goal to which man can aspire. ... The salvation of man is through love and in love."
What does Frankl believe about beauty in nature?
It can enable a prisoner to transcend his current miserable environment.
What did Frankl sense about his spirit?
That it could transcend his hopeless and meaningless world.
What is suffering?
What is one of the camps most imperative laws of self-preservation?
Do not be conspicuous.
What were prisoners to the officers?
How did Frankl answer questions?
truthfully but without detail
Did Frankl ever have a chance to escape?
He planned to escape a few times but never actually did.
What did most prisoners suffer from?
How do environmental conditions affect men and women's freedom to choose?
Regardless of environmental conditions, all women and men have a freedom to choose how to think about their situations.
What did Dostoevski say?
"There is only one thing that I dread: not to be worthy of my sufferings."
What does suffering mean to life?
"Suffering is an ineradicable part of life, even as fate and death. Without suffering and death human life cannot be complete."
Who did the woman who was about to die have as her only friend?
What was the most depressing influence on prisoners?
not knowing how long his term of imprisonment would be
Does Frankl believe inmates can have meaningful futures and goals?
Can a man live without a future to look forward to?
"It is a peculiarity of man that he can only live by looking to the future --- sub specie aeternitatis."
How does emotion relate to suffering and what can we do about it?
"Emotion, which is suffering, ceases to be suffering as soon as we form a clear and precise picture of it."
What did Nietzche say about life?
"He who has a why to live for can bear almost any how."
What about the meaning of life?
" Life ultimately means taking the responsibility to find the right answer to its problems and to fulfill the tasks which it constantly sets for each individual. These tasks, and therefore the meaning of life, differ from man to man, and from moment to moment. Thus it is impossible to define the meaning of life in a general way. Questions about the meaning of life can never be answered in sweeping statements."
What did Rilke say?
"Wie viel ist aufzulieden!"
What about experiences?
"Was Du erlebst, kann keine Macht der Welt Dir rauben." (What you have experienced, no power on earth can take from you.)
What did Frankl believe about boundaries between camp guards and prisoners?
How did the prisoners feel about their freedom?
They weren't happy on their first day of freedom.
What was the best part about going home from the concentration camps?
"The crowning experience of all, for the homecoming man, is the wonderful feeling that, after all he has suffered, there is nothing he need fear any more --- except his God."
What does Logotherapy focus on?
"Logotherapy focuses... on the future,... on the meanings to be fulfilled by the patient in the future. (Logotherapy, indeed, is a meaning-centered psychotherapy.)"
What does Logos mean?
"Logos is a Greek word which denotes 'meaning.'"
What is mental health based on?
"... mental health is based on a certain degree of tension, the tension between what one has already achieved and what one still ought to accomplish, or the gap between what one is and what one should become."
How does the existential vacuum manifest itself?
mainly in a state of boredom
What is more important than the meaning of life in general?
The specific meaning of a person's life at a given moment. "One should not search for an abstract meaning of life... everyone's task is as unique as is his specific opportunity to implement it."
What is the categorical imperative of logotherapy?
"Live as if you were living already for the second time and as if you had acted the first time as wrongly as you are about to act now!"
What is the logotherapy technique of "paradoxical intention"?
get the patient to think about the things they are afraid of
What are the three facets of the mass neurotic syndrome?
depression, aggression, and addiction
How can we become more human by thinking of others?
?? being human always points, and is directed, to
something, or someone, other than oneself --- be it a meaning to
fulfill or another human being to encounter. The more one forgets
himself --- by giving himself to a cause to serve or another person to
love --- the more human he is and the more he actualizes himself.?
How can we discover the meaning of life?
(1) by creating a work or doing a deed (2) by
experiencing something or encountering someone (3) by the attitude
we take toward unavoidable suffering
How can we understand someone's personality?
Love. ?Love is the only way to grasp another human being
in the innermost core of his personality. No one can become fully aware
of the very essence of another human being unless he loves him. By his
love he is enabled to see the essential traits and features in the
beloved person; and even more, he sees that which is potential for him,
which is not yet actualized but yet ought to be actualized.
Furthermore, by his love, the loving person enables the beloved person
to actualize these potentialities. By making him aware of what he can
be and of what he should become, he makes these potentialities come
Is suffering necessary to find meaning?
No. ?But let me make it perfectly clear that in no way
is suffering necessary to find meaning. I only insist that meaning is
possible even in spite of suffering --- provided, certainly that the
suffering is unavoidable.?
What were the odds of surviving the camp?
1 in 28
Is paradoxical intention panacea?
How can the mass neurosis of the present time be described?
?The existential vacuum which is the mass neurosis
of the present time can be described as a private and personal form of
nihilism; for nihilism can be defined as the contention that being has
How is man's existence determined?
?? man is ultimately self-determining. Man does not
simply exist but always decides what his existence will be, what he
will become in the next moment.?
What does Frankl say when comparing the attitudes of the men in the camp?
?In concentration camps, for example, in this living
laboratory and on this testing ground, we watched and witnessed some of
our comrades behave like swine while others behaved like saints. Man
has both potentialities within himself; which one is actualized depends
on decisions but not on conditions.?
What is a tragic optimism?
??it means that one is, ?, optimistic in spite of
the ?tragic triad,? as it is called in logotherapy, a triad which may
be circumscribed by: (1) pain; (2) guilt; and (3) death.?
What did Irvin Yalom state in Existential Psychotherapy?
"Of forty consecutive patients applying for therapy
at a psychiatric outpatient clinic ? twelve (30 percent) had some major
problem involving meaning ??
What does the perception of meaning boil down to?
?? the perception of meaning, as I see it, ? boils
down to becoming aware of a possibility against the background of
reality or, to express it in plain words, to becoming aware of what can
be done about a given situation.
What did Auschwitz and Hiroshima teach us?
?Since Auschwitz we know what man is capable of. And since Hiroshima we know what is at stake.?
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