African Women?s Mobilization in Historical Perspective Algeria (1954-62) Bibi Titi, Tanzania 1) Women part of the struggle for independence, but their particular concerns were not addressed by the nationalist movement. 2) Mozambique: women?s rights issues were addressed, but were set aside to be taken up after liberation 3) Guinea: Women?s concerns were seen as part and parcel of the process of independence Sékou Touré 4) Cameroon: women became involved in nationalist movements to advance their own gender-specific and other agendas. Nana Rawlings, Ghana, President of 31st December Women?s Movement Maendeleo ya Wanawake, Kenya Maryam Banbangida, former president of Nigeria?s Better Life for Rural Women Programme Margaret Dongo, former MP, Zimbabwe Malawi under Hastings Banda Depoliticized: Women?s League in Zambia focused on women?s morality What gave rise to new independent movements? changing international norms on gender equality and the diffusion of ideas and tactics across changing resource base; donor funding opening of political space for women?s associations as a result of democratization and political liberalization. UN Conference on Women Nairobi 1985 Women have been part of political reform movements Wangari Maathai Greenbelt Movement, Kenya Ellen Sirleaf-Johnson President of Liberia Rates of women in legislatures ? Rwanda 49% ? Mozambique 35% ? South Africa 33% ? Burundi 30% ? Tanzania 30% ? Seychelles 30% (46% in 1993) ? Uganda 30% ? Namibia 27% ? U.S. 16% House, 16% Senate (67th) ? Sweden 45% ? Overall 17% in Africa (up from 1% in 1960) ? World average 17% 50/50 movements South Africa Namibia Sierra Leona Kenya Tanzania Malawi Zambia Senegal Gertrude Mongella President, Pan African Parliament Dr Inonge Mbikusita Lewanika President of party, Agenda for Zambia Dr. Chamba Gwendoline G. Konie, Zambia Chairperson of The Social Democratic Party, 2001- Charity Ngilu Wangari Maathai Vice President Wandera Speciosa Kazibwe, Uganda 1994-2003 Ruth Perry Head of State, Liberia, 1996-97 Agathe Uwilingiymana Prime Minister Rwanda 1993-1994 Minister of Planning and Finance Luísa Días Diogo, Moçambique 2000- Maria das Neves Ceita Batista de Sousa 1999-2001 Minister of Economics, Agriculture, Fisheries, Commerce and Tourism 2001-02 Minister of Finance and 2002 Minister of Industry, Commerce and Tourism. Prime Minister Republic of São Tomé e Príncipe, 2002-2003 What explains increase on women?s political presence? End of conflict Introduction of quotas Active women?s movements Continental and international pressures Active women?s movements pushed for greater representation of women Women?s charters developed by Women's National Coalition of 81 groups in South Africa Botswana?s Emang Basadi in 1994 Uganda Women?s Network in 1996 Ghanaian women?s organisations in 2004 Introduction of Quotas Majority of quotas after 1995, the year the UN Conference in Beijing Ghana 1960 Tanzania 1975 Egypt 1979 - 1986 Senegal 1982 By 2007, approximately 25 African countries had adopted some form of legislative quota Types of Quotas Reserved Compulsory party quotas ? Party mandated quotas Regime type does not affect levels of female representation in Africa % of Women in Legislatures: Authoritarian 18 Democracies 13 Semi-authoritarian 12 Creation of new patronage networks Three of the 39 women elected to Rwanda's legislature in September 2003. From left: Constance Rwaka, Solange Tuyisenge and Athanasie Gahondogo. International women?s movement Pressure from regional bodies on states ECOWAS: 1997 treaty SADC: 1997 declaration African Union: 2003 Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa New donor funds What matters in promoting women?s political representation: Political will of government to promote women?s leadership, e.g., quotas Pressure from women?s movement Favorable institutional arrangements International pressures and norms Political reforms since 1990 that have opened political space for women Multipartyism Freedom of association Freedom of press Relatively free elections Shift to civilian rule Constitutional reform Women have been part of political reform movements Constitutions rewritten with gender equity clauses Uganda South Africa Namibia Mozambique In democracies women in parliament have been able to do more to influence the status of women Contrast South Africa and Uganda
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