Martin Luther Cont CREATEDATE 3/29/10 7:11 PM -Luther is excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church in: 1521 -Lives in freedom for 25 more years because: some German princes support his cause Luther?s Central Claims: 1. Sola Scriptura: Scripture Alone: focus on the ?word? scripture over ritual tradition 2. Justification Through Faith: emphasis on cultivating an emotional link between humans and the divine: seeking grace forged through: faith rather than works one is made righteous or just though faith 3. Priesthood of All Believers: end to mediation by priests all people have personal access to the divine strong emphasis upon religious: INDIVIDULAISM 4. Emphasis upon PREAHCING: since the Word is primary, preachers are of central importance includes a focus upon spreading the Word to non-believers: evangelism 1. Emphasis on the Total SOVEREIGNTY of God: God is majestic and removed form the natural world 2. Total DEPRAVITY of humanity: as a result of the Fall, all are born sinful berates a condition of absolute reliance on grace humans cannot choose God but instead must be chosen (predestination) 3. Establishment of a THEOCRACY: Calvin transformed Geneva into a place ruled by the church Stressing moral action in the public sphere 4. AUSTERITY of Worship: almost no ornamentation on the walls of Calvinist churches (e.g. ?Reformed?, Presbyterian and Baptist churches) starkness causes absolute focus on the Word attention is on the pulpit not altar -creates the Church of England: Anglican Church: in 1533 known as the Episcopal Church in: U.S. a synthesis of Catholicism and Protestantism renounced papal authority but still maintained most of the ritual/sacraments of Catholicism PURITANS: wishing to purify the Church of England: some thought this could not be accomplished in England and sailed to North America: Pilgrims: separatists an ?errand in the wilderness?: to construct a new Israel belief in a pact/promise between God and Puritans: covenant theology Many Protestants deny that a physical act can have a spiritual presence: Some Episcopalians recognize all seven Catholic sacraments Lutherans believe that only Baptism and the Eucharist are sacramental Baptists completely reject the language of: sacrament Instead refer to Baptism and the Eucharist as: ordinances Baptism: Practiced in some form by almost all Protestants Sometimes as an infant and sometimes as adult Done by sprinkling, pouring or immersion Different meanings for different groups/denomination Eucharist: Most Protestants have some form of this Sometimes called Holy Communion or the Lord?s Supper Some offer it once per week, some once per month, some once per year Some offer wine at the service and some prefer grape juice Most have ?open communion?
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