Lecture NotesMarch 30, 2010 Anti-Colonial Revolts, National Liberation, and Decolonization Decolonization The Americas decolonized first. Starting with the U.S. (1776 ? 1783) Then Haiti (1791 ? 1804) Then moving down into Central and South America Brazil was last (1823) Europe moved more into Africa and Asia After WWII these African and Asian colonies also started to gain their independence. Dilemmas of Colonization for the Colonized Investment of some in the colonial system. Led to ambivalence about ending colonial rule. Economic and educational possibilities opened up by colonization. Many got the change to go to university in Europe, or business opportunities that would otherwise have been closed to them. Political possibilities within the empire. Local leaders were often bolstered in their positions by colonialism, and got jobs and benefits from it. Articulating a Critique of Colonialism Aimé Césaire Discourse on Colonialism Famous anti-colonial philosopher. Anti-Colonial Humanism Colonialism as a betrayal of Western liberal ideas. Goes against everything achieved in the Enlightenment. Modernization was delayed rather than encouraged by colonialism. No intent to improve or develop infrastructure in the colony itself. Nazism as colonialism practiced on Europeans. Things that Hitler was doing were no different than things Europeans were doing to non-white people. Negritude The first ?black pride? movement of the African Diaspora. It was a literary movement designed to promote the dignity of black peoples. Not writing French for those who appreciated the classic French writers. Thus it focused on issues that were important to those of African descent within the French empire. Including issues of race and color. Did not constrict to western traditions. Could express their own thoughts, instead of mirroring classical European cultural influences. ?The African experience is based on emotion not reason because emotion is at the center of African culture.? Have a different way of seeing things than traditional European cultural. The Congo (Belgian) Formally called Zaire Leopold?s Congo Only recently has the true extent of the savagery of Belgium?s occupation of Congo come to light. Far worse than anything from Heart of Darkness Belgium kept control over the country until 1960, carefully ensuring that neither an educated nor a professional Congolese class was allowed to emerge to challenge them. Kept a lid on what the locals could do. No chance for a figure like Ghandi to emerge. Kept them subservient in the working class. Patrice Lumumba 1925 Born in Katanga province, Belgian Congo. As a postal worker, he organized a union. Gave him political education. 1958 Founded Mouvement Nationale Congolais Congolese National Movement Seeking independence for Congo. 1959 Issued a demand for Independence. Arrested 1960 Participated in a conference in Belgium where the Congo was granted independence. He became the Prime Minister. 5 days after independence, the army mutinied against the Belgian officers who still controlled it. Less than a week later, the mineral-rich province of Katanga announced it was seceding, a move backed by Belgium and the United States. Led by Colonel Joseph Mobutu Mercenaries used to protect mining interests. Tried to make their own province to make more money that way. Lumumba turned first to the UN, then USSR for aid. Wanted to overturn the succession to hold onto the funds. In January 1961, troops loyal to Colonel Joseph Mobutu seized, tortured, and murdered Lumumba. After several years of repeated rebellion, Mobutu seized power in a coup d?etat in 1965. He renamed the country Zaire Zaire became the most notorious example of a country where state institutions did little more than deliver money to the ruling elite. Everything in the country was directed towards making the ruler richer. Zaire was renamed the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1997. The country remains almost a watchword for poverty, dictatorship, and civil war. With the government and rebel forces each controlling about half the country. Rwanda Genocide Rebels able to flee into the rebel held territory in the Congo. Algeria (French) Algiera is the capital of Algeria and is on the coast. The Colony of Algeria Conquered by the French in 1830 Expropriation of Land A Settler Colony The Pieds Niors From France, Spain, Italy and Malta, as well as Sephardic Jews Unequal Citizenship Exclusion of Muslims All Algerians were no longer citizens of their own country. French Colonialism The French made their last major colonial gains after WWI They gained colonies but lost them after WWII Various parts were occupied by foreign powers. Although France?s colonies were restored in 1945, almost immediately France had to suppress a bitter independence struggle in Indochina. When this ended with French defeat and withdrawal in 1954, almost immediately they became involved in a new and even harsher conflict in their oldest major colony. Algeria Algeria was particularly problematic due to the large number of European settlers who had settled there in the century and a quarter of French rule. Can?t simply just pull out of the country. The Beginnings of Revolt May 1945 Demonstration of WWII veterans and violence at Setif 1946 Colonies including Algeria become ?departments? of France 1954 FLN begins war in Algiers Terrorist campaign, very violent. 1956 Morocco and Tunisia granted independence. 1957 France sends in troops under Jacques Massu, who suppressed the revolt in Algiers using any means necessary, including torture. The Road to Independence Revolt continues in countryside Guerilla Warfare and Counter-insurgency Some support for Algerian nationalists on French left. 1961 FLN flares again in Algeria Demonstrations by migrant workers sympathetic to FLN in Pairs Hundreds are killed and dumped into the River Seine Government increasingly considers independence. Invasion of France considered by French generals against granting independence. French army against losing Algeria, blow to their pride. Invading your own country? 1962: Independence Comes Pro-Colonial O.A.S. carries out a terrorist campaign Targeting the authorities. On July 1st, 1962, over 90% of Algerian electorate voted in a referendum on independence. The result was nearly unanimous and France pronounced Algeria independent on July 3rd. Algeria, however, proclaimed July 5th, the 132nd anniversary of the French invasion, as the day of national independence. Most of France?s African colonies were granted independence by 1960. Algeria was the last. In 1959, the pieds-niors numbered 1,025,000 and accounted for 10.4% of the total population of Algeria. In just a few months in 1962, 900,000 of them fled or left the country The most massive relocation of population to Europe since WWII. Fewer than 30,000 Europeans chose to remain. A motto used in FLN propaganda designating the pied-noirs community was ?Suitcase or Coffin? Since elections in 1991, a civil war has killed over 100,000 people. A September 2005 referendum overwhelmingly approved a peace plan that provides a broad amnesty for Islamic extremists. Received more than 97% of the vote. 3,000 people either convicted or suspected terrorists were pardoned. Papers Due Thursday Watch for typos. Do not use first person in paper. The Battle of Algiers Filmed in 1965 Dir. Gilles Pontecorvo Filmed in Algiers, with the support of the Algerian government. So realistic, people thought it was a documentary. Covers the years 1954 -1962 The film was banned in France until 1971 because it contained scenes of torture. The French denied until recently. The Battle of Algiers was shown at the Pentagon Insights into the occupation of a Muslim country by a Western power. The film is relatively even handed. Does show brutality and goodness on both sides The actual FLN leader plays himself in the film. Under a different name. Though he is only credited as a producer. All other characters in the film are based on real people with their actual names. Hassiba and the other Algerian FLN women who Westernized themselves to ?plant bombs? in French culture.
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