America In 1900 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/1900/timeline/index.html January ? A Nor'easter strikes Boston on New Year's Day, slowing down the loading of ships in the harbor. The city was caught off-guard because the Weather Bureau was closed for the holidays. (Northeast/US) ? Storms batter the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains. Californian rivers rise causing mud slides in Siskiyou County that wash out railroad tracks. The San Francisco Examiner reports that tides are the highest in memory. Harbor ships are driven onto mudflats, while the schooner Kodiak loses its bow when it collides with another vessel. (Southwest/US) ? William J. Witt and Anna Waddilove of Jersey City, NJ are the first recorded married couple of 1900. Ceremony takes place at Liederkrantz Hall at one minute after midnight, January 1, 1900. (Northeast/US) ? Great Britain establishes the British Protectorate of Northern Nigeria. Sir F.D. Lugard is named High Commissioner. (Europe) ? Owing directly to the US's commercial expansion into foreign markets, San Francisco's population reaches 350,000 including a significant immigrant population. (Southwest/US) ? Disturbed by US military involvement in the Philippines, Andrew Carnegie and William Jennings Bryan emerge as vocal opponents of what they see as US imperialism. (Asia) ? The Mexico City Electric Vehicle Company begins service with a ceremony attended by Mexican president Diaz. (North America) ? The US House of Representatives takes up the case of Utah Congressman, Robert Brigham, an avowed polygamist. Brigham, a Mormon, had three wives and fifteen children. He would eventually be expelled from the House by a vote of 268 to 50. Polygamy was officially prohibited by the Mormon Church in 1890. (Southwest/US) ? In Chicago, seven US cities agree to form the American Association of Baseball Clubs, which would later become known as the American League. The American League teams hailed from Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Chicago, Detroit, Milwaukee, and St. Louis. (Northeast, Midwest/US) ? In South Africa, the Boer War continues as Frederick Sleigh Roberts replaces Sir Redvers Henry Buller as Commander-in-Chief of British military forces. (Africa) ? V.I. Lenin emigrates to Switzerland and begins a five-year exile from Russia. (Europe, Asia) ? Republican incumbent William Taylor and Democratic contender William Goebel battle for the governorship of Kentucky. A highly suspect election resulted with both Taylor and Goebel claiming the State House. With the state assembly charged with deciding the winner, Taylor barricaded himself in the State House, protected by an armed militia. Attempting to confront the militia, Goebel was shot. As he hovered near death, the state assembly finally declared him the rightful winner of Kentucky's governorship. Goebel did not live to serve out his term and was succeeded by his lieutenant governor. (Midwest/US) ? Dry goods salesman, A.P. Hurst of New York tells the Indianapolis Journal that "the shirtwaist will be with us more than ever this summer. Women are wearing shirtwaists because they can be made to fit any form, and because they are mannish. Sleeves will be smaller, but not tight." (Northeast/US) ? German Kaiser, Wilhelm II, proclaims his intention to build up the German navy so that "the German Empire may also be in a position to win the place it has not yet attained."(Europe) ? The electric bus makes its debut along New York's Fifth Avenue. Bus fare was 5 cents. (Northeast/US) ? In response to large numbers of immigrants flooding into the Alaskan Territory in search of gold, President McKinley assigns Col. George M. Randall, 8th US Infantry to command an army division there. The move was made to prevent lawlessness from taking over the region as the number of gold speculators increases. (Northwest/US) ? The disputed election of a tax collector in San Francisco results in a riot and leads to the shooting of one man. Shots were fired as tax collector-elect Scott was taking his oath. John O' Brien, an assistant of Scott's, was wounded by Charles E. Droad, a deputy of candidate Sheehan, the man who lost the election. Sheehan protested Scott's election, saying Scott had not resided in San Francisco for the required 5 years. (Southwest/US) ? Sioux Indian Chief Spotted Tail dies in Paris. He was one of the best known of the war chiefs of the Sioux tribe. He played a considerable role in the Native American uprisings of 1876, which led to the massacre of General Custer and his troops. (Europe/Southwest/US) ? Residents of El Paso, Texas pay 25 cents admission to witness the execution of a prisoner. The proceeds were delivered to the man's widow. (Southwest/US) ? Russia's Minister of Finance announced that Russia's gold reserve was diminished over the last year by more than 24 million rubles. (Europe, Asia) February ? The steamer "Australia" arrives in San Francisco from Honolulu reporting 41 deaths from "the plague," and a total of 52 cases. City officials, in an effort to control the spread of "the plague," burn down an entire block in Chinatown. As the fire gets out of control, 4500 people are left homeless. (Southwest/US)? Henry Ford unveils the first Detroit-made automobile. (Midwest/US)? Colonel Frederick John Lugard is named High Commissioner of Nigeria as control of the territory passes from the Niger Company to England. (Africa)? The Baltimore and Ohio train line tests "The Wind Splitter," which reaches speeds of over 102 mph. (Northeast, Midwest/US)? President William McKinley announces his intention to run for re-election. (North America)? Telegraphic communication between London and the source of the Nile is established. The Ugandan Railway telegraph line crossed the river on the 19th of February. (Africa)? As debate over military engagement in the Philippines intensifies in the US Senate, Richard F. Pettigrew of South Dakota is accused of treason when he attempts to read the statements of Emilio Aquinaldo, the leader of the Filipino insurgents, into the congressional record. (Asia, Midwest/US)? Chicago contends with its heaviest snowfall on record. The city is brought to a standstill as railroad cars filled with livestock are stranded on Madison Street. (Midwest/US)? New gold fields are discovered in Nome, Alaska. Upon hearing the news, thousands abandon Dawson, the site of the last gold rush. (Northwest/US)? The boxing world mourns the death, in London, of the Marquis of Queensbury, the author of the rules under which professional boxing matches are conducted. (Europe)? In Britain, the Labour Party is founded. (Europe)? Seven thousand Chicago construction workers go out on strike demanding an 8-hour work day. (Midwest/US)? Unconfirmed reports out of Chile detail an alleged alliance between Peru, Boliva, and Argentina against Chile. (South America)? The Colima Volcano on the Pacific coast of Mexico erupts, sending waves of lava into nearby villages. Local Indians are forced to seek refuge in the Santa Ana mines in the center of Colima's copper region. Mexican troops, however, drive the Indians from the mines and force them back to their homes. (North America)? Florida's orange crop is threatened by a cold snap that sends temperatures down to 16 degrees. (Southeast/US) March ? Minnesota state agricultural officials predict a record grain harvest, exceeding that of Great Britain and Ireland, combined. (Midwest/US, Europe)? Theodore Dreiser publishes "Sister Carrie," a realistic novel concerning a young country girl's use of sexual prowess to pull herself up the social ladder. The book is taken out of circulation after selling 456 copies. (Midwest/US)? In Paris, bombs are thrown into the home of M. Alfred Picard, Commissioner-General of the Paris Exposition, which is about to begin. (Europe)? The Ameer of Afghanistan announces that Afghanistan will not submit to the will of Russia. He declares that, "The Afghans prefer death to slavery." (Asia)? An Elkhart, Indiana minister, Rev. Dr. E.H. Gwynne of the First Presbyterian Church, preaches to Francis Hoover who was at home ill with rheumatism. (Midwest/US)? The Social Democratic Party holds its national convention in Indianapolis, Indiana, nominating Eugene V. Debs of Indiana for president and Job Harrison of California for vice-president. (Midwest, Southwest/US)? An Indian medicine man in Alaska is sentenced to 6 months in jail and fined $200 for his role in trying a 14-year-old boy as a witch. Tiu Cow, a Kake Indian doctor, declared the boy bewitched and subjected the boy's family to a witch test involving a three-day stay in the woods and the capture of a live rat. During the witch test, the accused boy committed suicide. (Northwest/US) April ? An attempt is made on the life of the Prince of Wales during his visit to Brussels. A sixteen-year-old boy, who claimed to be avenging the "thousands slaughtered in South Africa," is arrested after firing two shots at the Prince. Both shots missed. (Europe, Africa)? Enthusiastic crowds greet Queen Victoria as she visits Dublin, Ireland. (Europe)? The Automobile Club of America hosts the US's first automobile race in New York. Nine cars raced along Merrick road on Long Island from Springfield to Babylon, twenty-five miles each way. A.L. Riker, driving an electric motorcar, was the winner, finishing in just over two hours. (Northeast/US)? Apache Indians in Tucson, Arizona are reported to have "raided" white citizens. (Southwest/US)? Brigadier General Funston, serving in Manila, is investigated for ordering the hanging, without trial, of two Filipinos who were alleged to have attacked an American scout party. (Asia)? The US Senate passes a bill setting aside preservation land in New Mexico for rapidly dwindling buffalo populations. (Southwest/US)? Blas Aguirre, a native of Texas, is extradited to Juarez, Mexico from El Paso, Texas. Aguirre was accused of participating in a raid across the border that resulted in the death of a Mexican citizen. Aguirre was charged with murder. (Southwest US)? As the number of pedestrians hit by automobiles increases, the city of Chicago considers a bill requiring cars to have fenders. (Midwest/US)? Andrew Carnegie donates another $3.6 million to the Trustees of the Carnegie Library and Institute in Pittsburgh. (Northeast/US)? Labor unrest dominates the news as ironworkers in Cincinnati, tinners and sheet-metal workers in Kansas City, boilermakers in Akron, Ohio, and Italian blacksmiths in Croton Landing, New York go out on strike, sometimes turning violent. (Northeast, Midwest/US)? Baseball season gets under way as teams from the newly formed American League take to the field. Chicago, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Milwaukee, Detroit, Indianapolis, Cleveland, and Buffalo make up the charter cities with teams in the upstart league. (Northeast, Midwest/US)? Hawaii joins Alaska, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona as a US territory. Sanford B. Dole is appointed governor of the new territory. (Southwest, Northwest/US)? Fire devastates the Canadian cities of Hull and Ottawa, resulting in over $15 million in damage. In less than 12 hours, 12,000 people are left homeless as 5 square miles of homes and buildings are destroyed. (North America)? France makes strides toward linking all its possessions in Africa by defeating Rabah Zubayr in the Battle at Kusseri, thereby gaining control of the Baguirmi Kingdom. France already controls Algeria, West Africa, and the French Congo. (Europe, Africa)? The Chinese government is issued an ultimatum by France, Germany, Britain, and the US to suppress the Boxer uprising. (North America, Asia, Europe)? The status of Puerto Rico as an unconsolidated US territory is confirmed by the Foraker Act. Under the act civil government was established in Puerto Rico, with the US appointing the governor and an 11-member executive council made up of 6 department heads and 5 other Puerto Ricans. Additionally, a tariff was placed on goods shipped between the US and Puerto Rico. (Central America/Caribbean)? James T. Caffery is the winner at the 4th running of the Boston Marathon. Caffery, of Hamilton, Ontario finishes with a winning time of 2:39:44. (Northeast/US, North America)? Admiral George Dewey announces from Washington, DC, his willingness to serve as president "if the American people want me for this high office." (Northeast/US)? Fighting in the streets of Panama poses concern for the US as free transit between Colon and Panama appears threatened. (Central America/Caribbean)? Late frosts inflict considerable damage to the fruit and vegetable crops in Central and Southern Mississippi. Farmers brace themselves to lose up to 35% of their crop. (Southeast/US)? President Diaz of Mexico opens the spring session of Congress with a speech highlighting a treaty of commerce and friendship with China, welcoming a Pan-American Congress, and denying that bubonic plague has made an appearance in Mexican territory. (North America)? Uruguay contends with heavy floods that cause the destruction of cattle and wheat. (South America)? Citizens of Santiago, Chile, experience their first ride of the city's new electric tram car. (South America)? Road workers in Puerto Rico go out on strike, causing much disruption to the island's commerce. Five hundred workers employed by the Ponce-Adjutas-Utado demanded a pay increase to 5 cents (gold) per hour, up from 2 cents (gold). (Central America/Caribbean) May ? Railroad engineer Jonathan "Casey" Jones of Jackson, Tennessee, is killed in Vaughn, Mississippi during a collision on the Illinois Central Railroad. The fatal mishap is linked to Jones' inability to read signal lights in a dense fog as he engineered the Cannonball Express. Jones' plight would be detailed in the famous song "The Ballad of Casey Jones." (Southeast/US)? Johannesburg, South Africa, falls to the British as the Boer War continues. (Africa)? In Washington, DC, the era of the horsecar comes to a close as the last horsecar makes its final run. (Northeast/US)? Lakeview, Oregon, is the site of a fire that destroys 64 buildings. (Northwest/US)? According to press reports, England has drawn up a draft agreement with the kingdom of Uganda. The king is to receive an allowance and the Katekiro (Prime Minister) will be paid a salary. (Africa)? Paris, France, is the site of the Summer Olympics, called the International Meeting of Physical Training and Sport. Over 1500 athletes from 22 nations compete for medals. France takes the lion's share of gold medals, winning 29. The US follows with 20. (Europe, North America)? Louisville, Kentucky, is the site of a reunion of 40,000 veterans of the Confederate Army. More than 100,000 people attend the event. (Midwest/US)? A deadly explosion at the Winter Quarters mine in Scofield, Utah, kills over 200 miners. (Southwest/US)? Italian laborers, imported to Mexico to work on the construction of the Vera Cruz and Pacific railroads, refuse to work. The Mexican government made it clear to their Italian counterparts that the non-working laborers would be deported. (North America/Europe) June ? In Washington, DC, heated debate in the US Senate over an anti-trust bill threatens to shut down the government. Elsewhere in DC, the Washington monument, featuring a seven-minute elevator ride, opens to tourists. (Northeast/US)? Republicans convene in Philadelphia to nominate presidential and vice-presidential candidates. They choose William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, respectively. (Northeast/US)? A federal quarantine, forbidding anyone to leave the city without permission from a US health officer, is ordered in San Francisco over fears caused by bubonic plague. (Southwest/US)? Spanish cellist Pablo Casals performs at the Salle des Agriculture during the Paris Exposition. (Europe)? Players from baseball's National League meet in New York to form The Protective Association of Professional Ball Players. Among other issues, players protest being farmed out to other teams against their will. (Northeast/US)? Medical experts in San Francisco hold discussions about using x-rays to treat tuberculosis. (Southwest/US)? The first international championship motorcar race is held in France as drivers from Belgium, France, Germany, and the US compete for the Gordon Bennett Cup on a course running from Paris to Lyon. The race, sponsored by New York publisher Gordon Bennett, is won by the driver from France, who maintains an average speed of 38 miles per hour. (Europe)? In China, the Boxer's siege of the legations begins with the assassination of the German ambassador. (Asia, Europe)? Three-hundred and twenty-six steamship passengers and crew members are killed as fire destroys 3 steamships and piers in Hoboken, New Jersey. (Northeast/US)? Nestor Montoya, a member of the New Mexican State Legislature, establishes "La Bandera Americana" a Spanish language newspaper. It was the second newspaper founded by the well known defender of Hispanic rights. Montoya founded La Voz del Pueblo in 1889. (Southwest/US)? New York is the site of the Socialist Labor Party convention where Joseph P. Maloney of Massachusetts and Valentine Remmel of Pennsylvania are nominated for president and vice-president, respectively. (Northeast/US)? The Prohibition Party chooses John G.Wooley of Illinois as their presidential candidate and Henry B. Metcalf of Rhode Island as their vice-presidential contender. (Midwest, Northeast/US)? Carrie Nation begins her crusade against liquor by hurling a rock through the window of a Kiowa, Kansas, saloon. (Midwest/US)? The London Times reports that mail will leave Rhodesia today for the first time in nine months and that passengers will be able to travel between Bulawayo, Rhodesia and Cape Town by the middle of June. (Africa)? The International Ladies' Garment Workers Union is founded by cloakmakers on New York's Lower East Side. The union represents 2,300 workers in New York, Newark, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. (Northeast/US)? An economic crisis in Guatemala forces the government to stop the importation of goods. A near collapse of nation's money markets leads to a reported complete stagnation of business. (Central America/Caribbean) July ? Italian and French vineyard owners attempt to divert hailstorms by firing cannons at developing cloud formations. (Europe)? Delegates arrive in Kansas City for the Democratic convention. They go on to nominate William Jennings Byran as their presidential candidate and Adlai E. Stevenson as vice-president. (Midwest/US)? Racial unrest erupts in Raleigh, North Carolina over an attempt by state Democrats to take away from African Americans the right to vote. (Southeast/US)? Race riots in New Orleans lead to the destruction of scores of African American schools and homes. (Southeast/US)? Security is increased in Paris at the Exposition as incidences of anarchistic violence increase. (Europe)? German Count Ferdinand Von Zeppelin launches his 416 foot long aircraft, called a Zeppelin, over Lake Constance. Capable of carrying up to 10 tons, the craft carried enough fuel to remain aloft for 10 hours. (Europe)? King Humbert I of Italy is assassinated at Monzo by silk weaver Gaetano Bresci, an avowed anarchist who had formerly lived in Paterson, New Jersey. (Europe, Northeast/US)? Paris, France, unveils its first subway system. It will expand to become one the world's three largest. (Europe)? At Wimbledon in London, Reginald Doherty wins the men's singles competition, while Mrs. Hillyard is the ladies champ. (Europe) August ? Farmers outside of London stage a protest over the introduction of time-saving and labor-reducing farming devices imported from the United States. (Europe, North America)? Insurrectionists in Persia attempt to dethrone the Shah.(Asia)? The death of a policeman, wounded in a scuffle with an African American, sets off racial violence in New York City. The New York Times reported that "every trolley car passing up or down Eight Avenue was stopped and every negro on board was dragged out, and beaten." The uproar led to demands for investigations into police brutality in New York City. (Northeast/US)? British authorities begin placing Boer resisters and guerrilla warriors into concentration camps in southern Africa. (Asia)? Thousands perish as earthquakes rock Ecuador and Peru. (South America)? An 8-member Allied relief force ends the siege of legations in Peking, China. There, the combined forces of the US, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, Japan, and Great Britain succeeded in driving the Boxers and a band of Chinese regulars out of the captured city. (North America, Asia, Europe)? German philosopher and poet, Friedrich Nietzsche dies. Nietzsche's controversial writings were harshly critical of Christianity. (Europe)? Booker T. Washington's National Negro Business League is formed in Boston, Massachusetts, with the objective of stimulating African American businesses. Washington was elected the organization's first president. (Northeast/US)? Farmers meeting in Topeka, Kansas, agree to form a trust to control agricultural output within the Mississippi Valley. (Midwest/US)? Famine-stricken India is relieved and hopeful due to recent rains. Severe droughts of the past two years led to nearly 90% of the country's cattle dying and produced over a half million orphans. (Asia)? The government of Chile approves the expediture of $2,500,000 (Chilean currency) to purchase automobiles, primarily from the US. (South America)? President Zelaya of Nicaragua painted a picture of peace and relative prosperity during his address to the Nicaraguan Congress. Zelaya also pointed out that he saw no sign of revolutionary movements or other conspiracies. (Central America/Caribbean) September ? Fifteen million children in the US attend public schools. Beyond the basics, there is little consensus concerning what they should be taught. (North America)? An essay written by Theodore Roosevelt praising football is published around the time of the death of a football player at Lake Forest University in Illinois who is killed during a game. (Midwest/US)? A deadly hurricane ravages Galveston, Texas, killing between 6,000 and 8,000. (Southwest/US) ? In Atlanta a controversy erupts when members of the Grand Army of the Republic protest the use of school books that show the Federal government in a bad light and include a history of the Civil War sympathetic to the Confederate cause. (Southeast/US)? Fourteen hundred kilos of opium, worth nearly $20,000, is seized as it is being brought into harbor at Havana, Cuba. (Central America/Caribbean)? Coal miners, led by John Mitchell, stage a massive strike in Shenandoah, Pennsylvania. (Northeast/US)? The United States offers to purchase the Danish West Indies to use as a naval coaling station. The Danish Parliament holds out for a higher offer. The deal is not completed until 1917. (North America)? Brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright conduct flight experiments at Kittyhawk, North Carolina. (Southeast/US)? The British Commonwealth of Australia is declared official and joins a federal union of six British colonies. (Australia)? Lack of seating space forces Atlanta public schools to turn away some 400 students. (Southeast/US)? Hennepin County, Minnesota, holds the US's first direct primary. (Midwest/US)? With a record of 82 wins and 54 losses, the Brooklyn Dodgers capture the National League pennant. (Northeast/US)? Working in Cuba, Army Surgeon Dr. Walter Reed conducts experiments determining that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes. Reed's work confirms a theory first proposed by Dr. Carlos Finlay of Havana in 1881. (Central America/Caribbean)? The Duke of Abruzzi's polar expedition returns to Norway and announces to the world that it had reached a destination at 86 degrees, 33 minutes north latitude, the highest point reached to date. (Europe)? In Bradford, England, Sir William H. Preece announces at the British Association for the Advancement of Science that he has successfully conveyed audible speech 6 to 8 miles without the use of wires. (Europe) October ? The presidential election of 1900 turns out to be the most expensive in US history. One report estimates the cost to have reached $5 million. (North America)? Authorities in New York report an increase in the number of cocaine users. (Northeast/US)A US Army transport ship, The Kilpatrick, sets sail for Manila loaded with Christmas presents for US soldiers in China and the Philippines. (Northeast/US, Asia)? Having tended to the battered and homeless for two months, Clara Barton announces that the Red Cross can now leave Galveston, Texas. (Southwest/US)? In Britain, the "Khaki" election results in victory for the Conservatives, who retain power under the Marquis of Salisbury. (Europe)? The 2,500-seat Symphony Hall opens in Boston. The facility was designed by McKim, Mead and White of New York at a cost of $750,000. Attendees at the inaugural performance enjoyed a performance of a chorale by J.S. Bach and Beethoven's Solemn Mass in D. (Northeast/US)? Britain annexes the Transvaal in Africa. (Africa)? Prussian Bernhard von Bulow becomes chancellor of Germany. He succeeds Chlodwig Karl Hohenlohe who resigned 2 days earlier. (Europe)? Austrian Sigmund Freud publishes "The Interpretation of Dreams," calling dreams "the royal road to the unconscious." Freud maintains that dreams contain repressed desires that would otherwise be censored in a wakened state. (Europe)? Seventeen French fishing vessels go missing off the coast of Newfoundland during a hurricane, causing over 400 casualties. (North America)? In Jamaica, celebrations take place to mark the establishment of a direct line of steamers running between Jamaica and Bristol. Jamaican Govenor Sir Augustus Hemming presided over a banquet in Kingston to mark the occasion. (Central America/Caribbean)? French engineers secure a contract to construct the Seoul-Wiju Railway in Korea. (Europe, Asia)? Tremors are felt as far as the Andes as an earthquake rocks Caracas, Venezuela. (South America) November ? The Paris Exposition comes to a close. (Europe)? The marriage of Louisa Pierpont Morgan, daughter of J.P. Morgan, to Captain Herbert Satterlee, in New York City is the social event of the season as fifteen hundred invitations are sent out. (Northeast/US)? The annual football contest between rivals Harvard and Yale, played at Yale Stadium in New Haven, Connecticut, finishes with Yale on the winning end of 28-0 score despite the hard-fought efforts of the Crimson, led by quarterback and team captain Charles Dan Daly. Yale would go on to win that season's Collegiate Football National Championship with a record of 12 wins and no defeats. (Northeast/US)? News out of Lavidia, Russia, reports the Czar to be in grave physical condition. (Asia/Europe)? Tragedies on the football gridiron occur in Lowell, Massachusetts, and Chicago, Illinois. In Lowell, 18 year-old Louis Gilmore is killed during the annual Thanksgiving Day game, while 16 year-old William Bartlett of Chicago dies during a neighborhood contest. Both boys succumbed to injuries to the spine. (Northeast, Midwest/US)? The first concert of the Philadelphia Orchestra, made up of the city's residents, is performed at the Academy of Music. (Northeast/US)? Thirty-one exhibitors attend the first US national automobile show at New York's Madison Square Garden. (Northeast/US)? A constitutional convention is held in Havana, Cuba. The island nation had been occupied by American forces since the expulsion of Spanish forces by the US. (Central America/Caribbean)? Irish-born writer Oscar Wilde dies of cerebral meningitis at the Hotel d'Alsace in Paris at age 49. Wilde was the controversial author of "The Picture of Dorian Gray," among other works. (Europe)? Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, is the site of a debate over academic freedom after university president David Starr Jordan dismisses Professor Edward A. Ross for making what Jordan considered to be radical political statements. (Southwest/US)December ? Thirty-two miners are trapped underground after a mine collapses in Dunsmore, Pennsylvania. Just over two hours after the collapse all 32 men emerge, bloodied, but alive. (Northeast/US)? J.P. Morgan buys Carnegie Steel from Andrew Carnegie for $480 million. Morgan forms United States Steel Corporation. (North America)? John Fitzgerald of Boston and George White of North Carolina announce the end of their respective congressional careers. (Northeast, Southeast/US)? Washington, DC, celebrates its 100th anniversary. (Northeast/US)? Civil war breaks out in Colombia. (South America)? The Colored Men's Branch of the YMCA, founded by Baptist pastor Charles Thomas, opens in New York City. The branch is accepted by the YMCA as a regular branch. (Northeast/US)? German physicist Max Planck announces what would come to be known as quantum theory. Planck maintains that light rays are not continuous but are emitted in discrete amounts called quanta. (Europe)? New York City's Park Row building is now, at 32 stories, the world's tallest building. Meanwhile, final contracts are signed to begin construction of the city's first subway system. (Northeast/US)? On Broadway, Olga Nethersole's play "Sapho" sparks a major controversy that leads to an indecency trial. (Northeast/US)? A New York Tribune editorial criticizes the lack of consideration shown pedestrians by the city's automobile drivers: "He (the driver) considered his responsibility fully discharged by the ringing of the gong." (Northeast/US)? The first overseas telephone call is made between Key West, Florida and Havana, Cuba. (Southeast/US, Central America/Caribbean)? Boston's last horse drawn trolley car is replaced by a twelve-passenger electric bus. (Northeast)? The American Bridge Company secures a contract to construct 34 bridges along the Uganda Railway. Engineers estimated that the job would require more than 8000 tons of structural steel, costing more than $1 million. (Africa)? Leaders from Chile and Argentina meet in Buenos Aires to sign a protocol putting to end speculation concerning strained relations between the two Latin American nations. Tensions arose between the nations when Argentine colonists occupied a portion of a disputed territory in Patagonia called Ultima Esperanza, and were ejected by Chilean police. (South America)
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