Amber Hauck WRA 140: Women In America Essay 3 Outline Introduction America in the 1900’s [the turn of the century]. The American Association of Baseball Clubs [later known as the American League] was formed. Women were wearing shirtwaists because they can be made to fit any form, and because they are mannish. The electric bus makes its debut in New York. Henry Ford unveils the first Detroit-made automobile. “The Wind Splitter” train reaches speeds of over 102 mph. Chicago contends with its heaviest snowfall on record. Seven thousand Chicago construction workers go out on strike demanding an 8-hour work day. The Automobile Club of America hosts the first automobile race in New York. The race was run 25 miles both ways and the winner took just over 2 hours to finish it. A bill requiring cars to have fenders was passed after the number of pedestrians hit by cars increases. Hawaii joins Alaska, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona as a US territory. The Summer Olympics [then known as the International Meeting of Physical Training and Sport] takes place in Paris, France. The Washington Monument becomes open to tourists. Discussions are held on using x-rays to treat tuberculosis. The first international motorcar race is held in France, where the winner kept up an alarming average speed of 38 mph. The death of a policeman, wounded in a fight with an African American set of racial violence in New York City. Fifteen million children in the US attend public schools, where beyond the basics; no consensus concerning what they should be taught was available. Orville and Wilbur Wright conduct flight experiments at Kittyhawk, North Carolina. Dr. Walter Reed conducts experiments determining that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes. Clara Barton announces that the Red Cross can now leave Galveston, Texas. 31 exhibitors attend the first US national automobile show at Madison Square Garden in New York. Washington DC celebrates its 100th anniversary. New York City’s Park Row building is now the tallest building in the world, at 32 stories high. The first overseas telephone call is made. The above facts are from the internet article on America in 1990. Austrian scientist Karl Landstriner identified human blood groups; A, B, and O. 1.5 million telephones were in use in the United States. King C. Gillette invented the “safety razor”. The most expensive car on exhibit was $4,000 Queen Victoria dies in 1901. This information is from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm Gender Roles In the 1900’s. Mothers were expected to have natural births in their own homes. Women in lower class families were expected to work long hours for little pay at menial jobs. Women in middle and upper class families were placed on a pedestal that did not allow them to engage in thoughtful pursuits or meaningful careers. The above three facts are from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm. A typical woman’s career options were interior design and modeling women’s clothes for the Sears catalogue. College educated women, which were indeed very rare, had different goals that the average woman. Women had few social rights. Many women spent their lives fulfilling the expected roles of women instead of pursuing goals that were mostly reserved for men. Women had the right to decline marriage and sex, but those women who remained independent were shunned by social pressure to conform. Discussing abortion was not socially acceptable, therefore leaving women powerless on the subject. The culture preferred women as non-professional, non-intellectual, homemakers, and mothers. This thought was introduced to girls at a young age. Women were thought of as selfish for wanting to go to college and wanting the same opportunities as men. She was powerless in her relationships, employment, economics, and society in general. This information was found in the internet article about Feminism and Gender Equality in the 1900’s. Thesis Statement Margaret Mead’s upbringing as a child, work in Samoa, in New Guinea, during World War II, writing for women’s rights, and her overall impact on anthropology helped her lead the way for many women’s rights activists that followed her, and influenced the present society. Body Paragraph 1 Short Bio. Born: December 16, 1901 in Philadelphia. The first baby born in the West Park Hospital. Father was Edward Sherwood Mead. A full professor of economics at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Believed strongly in the power of education. Margaret benefited from his insights and public speaking skills and credited him for helping her discover her place in this world. All information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm Mother was Emily Fogg Had limited work as a sociologist. Completed her Master’s and Doctorate while rearing her family. Studied Anthropology on Italian Immigrants. Women’s rights advocate. Did things unheard of for a refined woman such as walked, breastfed, and painting. All information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm Created a Unique Household for Margaret to grow up in. Her parents were concerned with social issues. Margaret’s Grandmother Martha Ramsay Meade was an influential part of her life as well. She showed more affection than either of Margaret’s parents. Was Margaret’s teacher and taught her elementary school, cooking, knitting, and other household duties. She had an indifferent attitude of social class and told many stories of heroic women. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm Her Siblings Richard born in 1904 was named the boy-punk after Margaret was named the original-punk Showed that her father thought that boys were equal to girls because he didn’t ever call Margaret the girl punk. Katherine was born in 1907 but died at just 9 months old, bringing great depression to her father. Elizabeth was born in 1909 and was dubbed the creative one. Priscilla, the youngest, was born in 1911 was the “pretty one” but disliked being told so. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm Margaret’s family moved often. She believed home could be anywhere you made it. Her spare time was spent in intellectual activities such as reading books, writing plays, and memorizing poetry. Homeschooled Inspired her to pursue reading and writing. Wrote a diary that included her noted attention to detail but disinterest in spelling that she kept all her life. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm Margaret was baptized Episcopalian, although her parents were both Atheist. Wrote and produced theatrical events in high school, edited the high school magazine, wrote articles, began a novel, and learned daily paper printing techniques. Graduated from Holmquist School in New Hope, Pennsylvania in 1918. Went on to spend a terrible freshman year at DePauw University. She transferred to Barnard College. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm Met Ruth Benedict Persuaded Mead to become an anthropologist. Also played an important role later in her anthropological studies. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm In 1923 she received her B.A. from Barnard Also married Luther Cressman. In 1924 she received her Master’s in psychology from Columbia University. Body Paragraph 2 Work in Samoa Conducted field work in Samoa for 9 months starting in 1925. Coming of Age in Samoa was published by William Morrow in 1928. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm Margaret chose her location to be Polynesia, and her overprotecting superior, Boas, agreed as long as she go to American Samoa, where US ships docked regularly. Wanted to study somewhere different, instead of just studying Native Americans like so many other anthropologists did at the time. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm Margaret chose her problem to investigate: the difficulties young girls encounter while passing through adolescence. If Samoan girls passed easily from girl to young adult, the stress and storm prevalent in adolescence in Western Civilization could be seen as caused by culture. If Samoan girls also had the stress and difficulties, then it could be seen as a natural part of life, a biological cause, not a cultural one. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm When taken to the train station, her father has been quoted saying “she never looked back!” Shows her lack of fear and her ambition for unknown adventures. Ruth Benedict traveled from Philidelphia to Arizona with Margaret. Her ship docked at Pago Pago on August 21, 1925. The capital of American Samoa, located on Tutuila, one of the main islands that along with several smaller ones made up Samoa. While waiting for her grant money, Mead spent her time learning to speak Samoan. Spent 7 hours a day memorizing vocabulary and another hour with a tutor. Also spent time learning the cultures and customs of the country Visited every village on the island of Tutuila. Learned best from Mrs. Wilson, an educated daughter of a Samoan noble mother. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm Margaret lived with Chief Ufuti and his family for 10 days They helped mentor Mead until she was finally able to perform the customs and habits of the Samoan people. She learned to bathe by using a saronglike outfit then in front of public eyes change into a dry one, eat Samoan dishes [most of which she enjoyed], and learned that others wait for the guest to eat before they begin. Received her first of three honorary titles of taupou, which indicated her a high maiden of honor. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm Conducted her actual research on the island of Ta’u. In just 2 weeks of residing on Ta’u, Mead could already describe the island, the villagers, the role of religion, the government school, her initial insights regarding adolescent girls, the missionary influence, and contrasts between Samoan and American girls. She noted that most Samoans are Christian. Also noted that she had not noticed any adolescent insubordination. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm Margaret was told not to study and document information about the culture as a whole, but to only focus on adolescent girls. She observed and gathered information on kin relationships, family positions, and wealth. Collected data on girls approximately between 8 and 20 years of age. Between 50 and 70 girls. Classified the girls as “adolescent”, “just reaching puberty”, and preadolescent”. Few exceptions were found The similarities of the girl’s behaviors made it easy to generalize even though only 50 girls from 3 villages were studied. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm Mead concluded that Samoan young women do not suffer the stress felt by young women in the Western world because, while physically females go through the same bodily changes, a less complex Samoan society results in less storm and stress in their lives. Preadolescent girls from ages 6-7 were given big responsibilities. Tended the younger children. Ran errands Did small chores Children under age 14 also performed the irritating detailed routine of housekeeping. As they neared puberty, if they were strong and healthy they worked on plantations, fished, and learned more complex household skills. In their adolescent years, they continued to work, but had limited responsibilities until marriage. Mead saw this as the best years of the women’s life, with freedom to enjoy oneself. Sex was neither encouraged nor discouraged. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm Applying the Lessons of Samoa to America Samoans had no teenage rebellion that Americans face because they also have no moral pressure on topics like sex and marriage. Choices had to be made in American society that Samoans did not face, therefore they did not exuberate the exhaustion and stress from having to make these possibly contradictory choices. People are not destined to act in a predestined way, but do so based on their history. Americans should not limit the choices given to young people, but instead teach them how to deal with these choices. People are made, not born. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm In between the two trips, Margaret met Reo Fortune and immediately divorced Luther to marry him. Body Paragraph 3 Work In New Guinea Sex and Temperament was published in 1935 Began her studies in December 1931. Studied whether the differences between male and female roles was biological or cultural. Met Gregory Bateson and divorced Reo Fortune to marry Bateson. Had her child, Catherine Bateson while on the trip. Demonstrated enormous variability in cultural definitions of maleness and femaleness in 3 tribes. The Arapesh Both men and women were kind hearted and gentle. No division between the sexes Both the men and the women took care of the children. Warfare seemed to be unknown to these people. Harder to be a male because they were bent towards the female temperament. Unintellectual and simple. Co-operative, unaggressive, responsive to the needs and demands of others. No idea that sex was a powerful driving force either for men or for women. The Mundugumor Both men and women were ruthless, aggressive, positively sexed individuals. Bent the female temperament into a male one. Warlike people. Maternity was hated, and many newborn infants were killed at birth. Adults conform to one type; no division between the sexes. The Tchambuli A genuine reversal of the sex roles found in our own culture, with the woman the dominant, impersonal, managing partner, the man the less responsible and the emotionally dependent person. Thus, she concluded, gender characteristics vary from culture to culture and are determined by the culture, not biology. “We are forced to be able to conclude that human nature is almost unbelievably malleable.” Body Paragraph 4 World War II By using photography along with her writing skills, Mead was able to study culture at a distance. This proved to be helpful in studying Germany and Japan in WWII. Information from internet article titled Margaret Mead, 1901-1978. The U.S. officially entered WWII on December 8, 1941, Margaret’s daughter’s second birthday. In 1941, Mead became the director of the Committee on Food Habits of the National Research Council. Conducted experiments on whether food habits can be changed, how food habits are formed, and how nutrition can be improved. Continued this interest after the war. Wrote And Keep Your Powder Dry Discussed American attitude toward aggression and how this attitude impacts our ability to be successful soldiers. Also hypothesized that American’s did not join the war in response to the attack on Pearl Harbor, but that they had been carrying a chip on their shoulder and were just waiting for someone to knock it off. Mead wrote in her autobiography very pessimistically about the atomic bomb and was utterly disgusted when it went off. Body Paragraph 5 Tried to stray away from being called a feminist, Margaret hated the term altogether. She completed her own terms in a man’s world, but in a feminine manner. Never set her career aside to pursue her family. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm Divorced 3 times, went against the social norm. Was a liberated woman who kept her name after being married. She liked to shake people up a bit. Was called terrible things by many influential people for her rebellious attitude, but didn’t mind. Prominent in the women’s movement. Information from the internet article titled Margaret Mead, 1901-1978. It did not matter much whether women engaged in political and economic affairs. If they did, she felt, in these affairs women must make use of female qualities. She did not like the abandonment of female qualities in pursuit of equal rights. Encouraged women to pursue political and economic equality as women, not as persons. She would hope that women in public affairs would make use of “feminine intuition”. Information from the internet article titled Margaret Mead’s View of Sex Roles in Her Own and Other Societies. Mead had been raised in a home where it was expected that a woman have other interests outside the family and home. She called herself a brilliant exception, and was looked at by women as a model of professionalism; the consummate career woman. They could identify with her as a wife and mother. Provided a warm and comforting shoulder to lean on. Noted the hypocrisy that in school girls were taught to have the same goals as boys, but when they grow up to be adults they only were given the option of motherhood. Wrote essays calling for women to be treated as individuals, not just wives and mothers, and that men take more part in the work around the home. Information from Margaret Mead A Voice For The Century by Robert Cassidy Body Paragraph 6 Margaret Mead’s impact on anthropology. She was the first to integrate photography along with her writing. Information from Margaret Mead, 1901-1978. Viewed that words should no longer be the only tools used in anthropology, that video and photograph gave much better evidence. Anthropology became a science of words, and those who relied on words have been very unwilling to let their pupils use the new tools. It takes more specialized skill to photograph and make films than it does to set a tape recorder going or to take written notes. Many cases they have disallowed, hindered, and even sabotages the efforts of their fellow research workers to use the new methods. Information from the internet article visual anthropology in a discipline of words. Other anthropologists viewed her catering to the public an abomination. They viewed her work as mainstream and sometimes nonexsistent. Now, she is famous for her discovery of culture being the primary reason for sex roles. Information from Margaret Mead A Biography by Mary Bowman-Kruhm One of the originators and developers of the concept of national character, a branch of anthropology that sought to analyze cultures on the base of nationality. Also was the prime mover of culture at a distance. Most important role was as interpreter of world events and trends to the American people Even from her works in Samoa, she tried to relate these findings to American culture. Information from Margaret Mead A Voice For The Century by Robert Cassidy. Conclusion Margaret Mead did not care about conformity, but also did not want to be viewed as a feminist. She paved the way for women to work within a man’s world. She proved that there was no biological temperament difference between men and women that this difference was developed by culture and didn’t exist in some. Made a lot of influential people speak out angrily about her differences. These statements never held her back, she in fact, liked bothering people with her nonconformist ways. This attitude dates back to never wanting to even follow her father’s wishes. She was well respected, even though she is not well known to the public today. Margaret died November 15, 1978 of pancreatic cancer. Restate thesis. Summarize body paragraphs. Short Bio Studies in Samoa which lead to the conclusion that adolescent stress felt in adolescent girls of Western culture is in fact developed by the culture. Studies in New Guinea which showed that female vs. male roles in society were also culturally developed, not biologically at all. Involvement in WWII including her committee position and speaking out against the bomb. Women’s rights, carry yourself as a woman in a man’s world, but never give up your femininity. She changed the world of anthropology by studying culture at a distance and forming the national character, etc. Things to Be Careful Of. Make sure computer doesn’t mess up works cited again. Highlight 3 transitory phrases. Highlight 3 vocabulary words. Research a little more on how she impacted women’s rights. At least 7 pages, although I don’t think I’ll have a problem there. 8 different direct quotes from 8 different academic sources. Bring 2 clean copies to Peer Editing. Watch for awkward phrases PARANTHETICAL REFERENCES You never do this, you HAVE to.