What are the most notable of the Polychaete families?
Alciopids and Tomopterids
What are some characteristics of Heteropod Mollusks?
have a fin like foot for undulation
found tropical and subtropical
What are some characteristics of the Pteropod Mollusks?
foot consists of 2 lateral fins
serve as whale food
What are some characteristics of Holobates?
open ocean or coastal
live on the surface of the water
Characteristics of Calanoid Copepods
long antenae used for locomotion
THE MOST IMP. AND ABUNDANT METAZOAN PLANKTON
a lipid rich food source for whales, fish, and other zooplankton
What are some characteristics of Euphausiids?
THE 2nd MOST IMP. METAZOAN PLANKTON
protein rich food source for whales, squid, and penguins
What are some metazoan plankton that use akinetic locomotion?
Physalia (PMOW, By the Wind Sailor)
Chondrophorans (Porpita, Velella)
What are some metazoan plankton that use ciliary/flagellar locomotion?
What metazoan plankton use jet propulsion as a means of locomotion?
What metazoan plankton use appendicular locomotion?
Pterodpods (Sea Butterflies)
Pycnogonids (Sea Spiders)
What are some metazoan plankton that use undulatory style locomotion?
Examples of suspension feeding metazoan plankton
examples of raptorial carnivores
examples of herbivorous metazoan plankton
examples of non feeding metazoan plankton larvae
What are some of the general characteristics of gelatinous zooplankton?
neutral or near neutral bouyancy
lots of water in body
little organic matter in body
suspension or filter feeders
What is one ecological significance for gelatinous zooplankton?
they keep nano and microplankton populations under control through predation
When did the die out of the Ostracoderms occur?
between the devonian and carboniferous periods (~6000 yrs ago)
How has the act of breathing adapted to life in the water?
nostrils have transitioned from the front of the face/snout to the top of the head
It's an energetic waste to have to break the surface to breath
Describe the feeding morphology of piscivores
elongate face with long slender jaws
snout often dorsoventrally compressed
sharp conical teeth
Includes: Crocodilians, Sea Birds
Describe the feeding morphology of herbivores
blunt face and snout
grinding or chewing teeth
Includes: Manatees, Green Sea Turtles
Describe the feeding morphology of planktivores
straining setae, teeth, or plates
Includes: Baleen Whales, some Sea Birds
Describe the morphology characteristic of appendicular locomotion
short body + tail
long neck with small head
limbs webbed or paddle like
Includes: Sea Lions, Seals, Penguins, Sea Turtles
what effect does appendicular locomotion have on bone structure?
long femur and humerus
short radius, ulna, tibia, fibula
cartilaginous wrists and ankles
long digits with extra phalanges
What morphology is characteristic of undulatory locomotion?
torpedo shaped body
EITHER broad dorsoventrally flattened OR long and laterally compressed tail
short or no neck
hindlimbs reduced or absent
forelimbs paddle like
dorsal fin often present
What is the purpose for having a large head when using undulatory locomotion?
Mass Fulcrum --> it keeps the tail from moving the body in the wrong direction, prevents swaying, and aids in locomotion
What kind of vertebrae do fishes and sea snakes have?
Amphicoelous Vertebrae (Centrum is sunken in)
What kind of vertebrae do cetaceans have?
What life forms rose and diversified during the Cambrian Period?
Inverts and Vertebrates
What characterizes the Ordovician period?
the arrival of plants on land
what organisms rose in number during the Devonian period?
fish, chelicerates, insects, seed plants
What is characterized by the Carboniferous Period?
diversification of seed plants
rise of amphibians
What is the Metazoic Era called?
The Great Invasion
What was present in great number during the Jurassic Period?
What diversified during the Cretaceous Period?
What lost diversity during the Cretaceous Period?
In the Cenozoic Era, what organisms arose during the late Oligocene Period?
Describe the Erythrobatrachus noonkanbahensis?
an extant marine amphibian
found during the Triassic period
had an undulatory tail with well formed hindlimbs
similar to the estuarine crocodile
What was Fejervarya cancrivora?
a crab eating frog found in mangals and polyhaline ponds of prehistoric SE Asia
did NOT drink water
What are some adaptations employed by extant marine amphibians?
tolerance to high plasma osmolarity
decrease in urine flow
store urine in blood
elevated ammonia excretion
During what era did prehistoric reptiles rule the sea?
the Mesozoic era
What were the Plesiosaurs?
the most diverse and widespread of all extant marine reptiles
were piscivores as well as appendicular swimmers
mostly neritic (coastal)
What were Icthyosaurs?
an extant marine reptile that probably had to return to land to reproduce
some deep diving
had amphicoelous vertebrae
fusiform body form (reduces drag and increases basal metabolism)
visual feeders --> big eyes
What caused the Icthyosaurs to die out?
competition with other marine reptiles and advanced sharks
What are the 2 lines of Sea Turtle evolution?
Chelonids and Dermochelyoids
What are the differences between the 2 lines?
Chelonids = anterior to posterior compression in 1 axis
Dermochelyoids = lateral compression in 2 axes
Describe the Pterosaurs
fossil winged reptiles
dominated the air until the late cretaceous
ecological equivalent of a frigate bird
What are some adaptations of marine reptiles?
skin is impermiable to sodium
have various salt glands
return to land to lay eggs
usually viviparous or ovoviviparous
Which line of sea turtles has the most modern day species?
the Cheloniids --> 7 species
(the Dermochelids only have 1 spp)
What are the physical characteristics of the cheloniid line?
well developed carapace and plastron
v shaped beak
What are the characteristics of the Dermochelid line?
reduced shell made of rows of dermal bone
w shaped beak
what makes up the diet of Green Sea turtles?
seagrass and macroalgae
What makes up the diet of Leatherbacks?
What is the only estuarine turtle?
The Diamondback Terrapin (5 sub spp in FL)
What type of salt glands do sea turtles have?
What are some characteristics of crocodiles?
carnivores and piscivores
Describe the Galapagos Marine Iguana
forage less than 400m from shore
enter the water only to feed
What kind of salt glands do marine iguanas contain?
Nasal Salt glands
What is an example of a monitor lizard?
The Mangrove Monitor --> N. Australia to Guam, strongly aquatic, eats crabs/fish/snails, skin is harvested for drum heads
What are some morphological features of sea snakes?
laterally compressed body
reduced ventral scalation
buccal and cutaneous respiration
what species of sea snakes are ovoviviparous?
What species of sea snakes are viviparous?
A few placental Hydrophids
What form of reproduction do Sea Krates use?
Why must sea snakes shed their skin?
Because barnacles, bryozoans, and epiphytes will grow on their skin
How do sea snakes shed their skin?
Most will use the sea floor to rub up against objects or reef
But Pelamis Platurus is an open ocean snake, so they will coil and knot itself so that its skin is rubbing together in order to shed
What is Pelamis platurus?
An open ocean sea snake that is found along the equatorial counter current and utilized countershading as a defense mechanism
How does Pelamis platurus hunt?
It is a surface ambush predator, meaning that they side swipe their prey
once they catch a fish, the snake will position itself in a J position to maneuver the fish head first into its mouth using the current in the water. This allows them to swallow the fish without getting poked by its spines
What are the 2 groups of sea snakes?
The Hydrophiids and Laticaudids
Describe the Hydrophiid group
ovoviviparous or viviparous
reduced ventricle scutes
rarely or never return to land
Describe the Laticaudid group
broad overlapping ventral scutes
return to land to digest prey, shed skin, mate, and nest
Where do littoral birds reside?
on shores, beaches, bays, and lagoons
Where do Inshore birds live?
within sight of land
Offshore birds will go out as far as the edge of what?
the continental shelf
ducks, geese, and swans
What animals make up the order Charadriiformes?
gulls, terns, and skimmers, sandpipers, stilts
Ciconiiformes consist of....
herons, egrets, ibises, storks, flamingos
What are some morphological adaptations to flight in offshore birds?
High wing aspect ratio (huge wing length compared to body length)
forked tail for slow speed flying
What are some groups that are considered offshore birds?