an even number of parallel, tape like groups of small yarns braided into a hollow, tube like cord
where are hollow braided lines used?
for parachute shroud lines and shot lines for line throwing guns
what constitutes the stuffer braided lines?
it is manufactured very similar to hollow braided lines, except that the braid is formed around a highly twisted yarn core, which rounds out and hardens the line
where are cotton stuffer braided lines used?
for sash cord (heaving lines)
when making line, why must the principle of opposite twists be observed?
to keep the tight or stable and to prevent the parts from inlaying when a load is suspended on it
how are solid braided lines fashioned?
of large yarns. either single or plied, tightly braided to form a hard, relatively stiff line that will not kink, snag, or swell in water. this construction is used for lead lines, taffrail log lines, and the like
what are double braided lines?
two hollow braided ropes, one inside the other, and the core is made of large single yarns in a slack, limp braid
what is double braided line manufactured from?
only from synthetics
where are double braided line used?
for mooring lines, tow lines, and many other purposes
the core of a double braided line accounts for how much of the lines total strength?
how is plaited line constructed?
with eight strands, four are right twisted and four are left twisted
where are plaited lines used?
for tow lines, ship mooring lines, messengers, dressing lines, and many other applications
where are single braided lines used?
for mooring lines and towing hawsers
what are the replacement lines for the personnel highline, the inhaul and outhaul lines, adn the replenishment at sea messenger made of?
what should manila lines of 4 inches or more be reserved for?
fueling at sea riding lines
what is the correct procedure to coil right laid line?
coil it right handed or clockwise. flake down braided and plaited line
what does powdery white residue indicate on natural fiber line?
approximately what percent does natural fiber line deteriorate in 2 years from weathering alone?
if a natural fiber line is more than 5 years old (either used or unused), where may it be used?
only for lashing, fenders, and matting
when examining synthetic line that has been over stressed, how can you tell if it is damaged?
the inside yarns will be fused together
what is the line called that is 1 3/4 inches or less in circumference?
what is the most commonly used sizes of small stuff?
from 9 to 21 thread, but you may find it anywhere from 6 to 24 thread
how is the size specification of small stuff governed?
by number of yarns it contains (called threads)
what is marline?
a type of small stuff which is left laid, two strand, tarred hemp. it is used mainly for seizing
what is housing line?
a left laid, three strand, tarred hemp, which is used when you need something stronger than marline
where is housing line used?
for light seizing, serving pennants, riggings, and outside work exposed to weather
what is round line?
a three strand, right laid tarred hemp
where is round line used?
for seizing and serving on ships where neatness is required
what is sail twine?
small stuff laid up right handed by machine, like regular line, but it is not much larger than fishing line
where is sail twine used?
for serving when a fancier job than can be done with marline is dersired
what is cod line?
the light, white line formerly used in hammock clews. it is now used for decorative purposes
how is line larger then 1 3/4 inches designated?
by its circumference, in inches
what will put more lives in jeopardy than any other gear?
line is a doubtful condition
what procedure is used to find the size of a piece of small stuff?
open a strand, count the number of threads it has, and multiply the result by 3 for three strand stuff
what is the most common type of small stuff used aboard ships?
where should coils of line be stowed?
on shelves or platforms clear of the deck. they should never be allowed to become covered with an accumulation of junk that may prevent the evaporation of moisture
why is line susceptible to mildew and rotting?
because line is composed of vegetable (natural) fiber
how should coils of line be stowed?
along a shelf in order of size, and each coil should be set up in the way in which it opens properly; that is, with the inside end at the bottom of the center tunnel
what is the proper way to start the line?
the burlap wrapper should be left on each coil. the stops, which secure the coil, are inside the wrapper. these should be cut and drawn up the inside end
what is the best way to eliminate the possibility of somebody fouling up a partially used coil of small stuff?
if the first lieutenant has several reels mounted in the boatswain's locker, and the most commonly used sizes of small stuff can be put on these reels
how can bights of tightly wound coils of marline be prevented from working off the ends of a coil and becoming snarled?
once the stoppers of the coil have been cut, transfer the marline to a reel
when are mooring lines opened?
only when needed?
what action is required if there is a need to stow line that is wet?
if should be laid up on grating in long fakes or suspended in some other way so that it can dry quickly as possible. it should never be covered until it is dry
which direction should you put a right-laid line on a winch?
right-handed or in clockwise turns
when is about the only time left-handed turns cannot be avoided when putting line on a drum or capstan?
when a winch is heaving on two lines at once, one of each drum
what happens to a line that is kinked or twisted when subjected to a strong strain?
it results in a permanent distortion in the line
what is a cockle (or hockle)?
a condition similar to a kink, which actually is a kink in an inner yarn that forces the yarn to the surface
how can cockles be corrected?
by stretching the line and twisting the free end to restore the original lay
what is the result when lines are secured improperly?
it causes drastic reductions is strength. the strength of a line can be reduced by as much as 50% for knots and bends and 40% for hitches
what percent of line strength is retained if it is properly secured with round turns on "H" bitts?
what is a stretch?
a type of line distortion
what can be done to insure against overloading of synthetic fiber rope?
attach a tattletale to each mooring line
when does stretch and elongation usually occur?
when natural fiber line under tension is wet down, and the line shrinks, adding more strain, and when dry, the line does not recover
what action is required on taut lines, such as boat falls, when it begins to rain or spray begins to wet the line?
the lines must be slacked
what does the effect of aging under storage conditions cause to natural fiber lines?
natural fiber lines basically consist of cellulose and have the same aging properties as paper. that is, they turn yellow or brown and become brittle with time
what does the color change in natural fiber lines indicate?
that the line has lost breaking strength (BS). the loss usually amounts to 1 to 2 percent per year of storage
how is the loss of bending strength decrease in relation to breaking strength in natural fiber lines?
bending strength decreases 5 times as rapidly as breaking strength
how is the loss of bending strength in natural fiber lines indicated?
be the fibers becoming brittle and stiff
what is used to aid in identifying when natural fiber lines should be removed from service and replaced?
a rigging log
how is a determination made as to the deterioration of bending strength?
from the manufacturer's identification marker tape within the line strand. the marker tape will tell you who made the line, the date the line was made, and the fiber type
if you have a line that you are using in a critical operation, what is the maximum number of years you can use this line?
when surging line around bitts or capstans, how should it be done?
take off enough turns so that the line will not jerk, but will surge smoothly
what action should be taken if a line becomes chafed or damaged?
cut and splice. a good splice is safer than a damaged section
line that is loaded in excess of what percent will permanently damaged?
what synthetic fibers are currently in use for making line?
nylon, aramid, polyester (Dacron), polypropylene, and polyethylene, in descending order of strength
when using synthetic fiber line, why must you observe safety precautions more exacting than those for manila line?
the characteristics of synthetic line differ from those of manila line
where can a complete list of safety precautions, observed for using synthetic line, be found?
Chapter 613 of the Naval Ships' Technical Manual (NSTM)
why should extreme care be exercised when a synthetic line is being payed out or eased from securing devices?
because of the lower coefficient of friction of synthetic fiber line
for control in easing out, how many turns should be taken on cleats or bitts?
no more than two round turns
what is the procedure for checking a line under strain?
take two round turns followed by no more than two figure-eight bends. any more than this will present a danger to personnel and cause difficulty in handling the line
what safety precautions should be observed to minimize the hazard of pulling a line handler into a securing device when a line suddenly surges?
have safety observers ensure that all the line handlers stand as far as possible with a minimum distance of at least 6 feet from the securing device being tended or worked
at what angle to the direct line pull should you be positioned while you are tending synthetic fiber line that is under tension?
a minimum of 90 degrees from the direction of the tension force
what type of line, between the synthetic and manila of equal sizes, has the higher breaking strength?
the synthetic line
what knot is known to offer reasonable security when you are bending together or securing synthetic line?
what are three safety rules that must be heeded in line handling regardless of the line fiber material?
1)never stand in the bight of a line or in the direct-line-of-pull when the line is being put under tension
2)never continue to increase the load on a line after the rigs have been two-blocked or tightened
3)remember that a safety observer is imperative in every case where lines are being worked
how are lines classified?
by both their construction and their material
what is abrasion of a line?
the condition a line is subjected to in a chock or around a capstan head
when is stretch in a line an advantage?
when a line is subjected to impact loading, as it is towing, the more stretch the line has, the better it can absorb impact
how is synthetic line handled?
it is reeled and unreeled in the fashion as wire rope
what action should be taken if a synthetic fiber line coil should collapse and line kinks and tangles?
secure one end, and drop the remainder of the coil into the sea. the water will relax the line and gradually uncoil
what line is recommended by NAVSEA for use aboard ships for mooring lines and tending lines?
Aramid fiber line (Kevlar)
why can tattletale cords not be used to determine the strain on aramid fiber line
it stretches only 6% at minimum breaking strength
how should cable-laid nylon or synthetic line be coiled on capstan or reels?
it is left-laid and should be coiled on capstan or reels in a counterclockwise direction
why is it an unsafe practice to mix lines of different materials or constructions?
unequal stretch results in unequal loading
what action should be taken before using new three strand synthetic fiber line?
it should be faked down on deck and allowed to relax for 24 hours
what would be the purpose of dropping a synthetic line into the water?
it removes bulges in new, soft laid line and hardens the line structure
what happens to a synthetic line when it becomes wet?
it shrinks slightly but does not sell or stiffen
how does nylon differ from natural fiber line?
it stretches under load, yet recovers to its normal size when tension is removed
when stretching double braided nylon line, when is the critical point reached?
when the line is stretched 27%; it parts when the stretch is 30%
how can the stiffness of new cable-laid nylon hawsers be alleviated?
put the cables under tension for 20 minutes at 30% extension
what action is taken when nylon lines become iced over in use?
they should be thawed carefully at moderate temperatures and drained before stowing
what visual clues are warnings that synthetic line is under great strain and is in danger of parting?
the line begins to smoke because of the heat generated by stretching; the line diameter will get smaller and smaller as stretching continues; and finally the tattletale cord will lay taut against the line
what is a tattletale cord?
a bight of six-thread manila hanging from two measured points on the working line
how much strength may polypropylene line lose when exposed to tropical sunlight in the line is made without ultraviolet inhibitors?
as much as 40% in 3 months
what is an important point to bear in mind when you pull on the inside end of a new coil of line?
the line must uncoil in a counterclockwise direction
what is a faster and easier way to measure a long line, such as a boat fall?
measure a long stretch on deck and fake your line back and forth until the desired length is laid out
how may line be made up, once it is removed from the manufacturer's coil?
it may be made up by either winding on a reel or by coiling down, faking down, or flemishing
what does coiling down a line mean?
laying it up in circles, roughly one on top of the other
what is faking down a line?
laying it out in long, flat bights, one alongside the other
what is meant by flemishing a line?
starting with the bitter end an laying successive circles on the deck of line in the manner of a clock spring with the bitter en in the corner
what is the purpose for whipping a loose line?
to prevent it from un-laying and fraying
what is used to put a permanent whipping on a line?
a palm and needle using sail twine
what indicates deterioration of natural fiber line through age or exposure?
the gradual change in it color from yellowish white to a gray
what indicates deterioration of a natural fiber line from use or abuse?
the bristling of the ends of broken yarns. an over strained line also shows a decrease in diameter
what is the breaking strength of aramid rope that is 3 3/8 inches in circumference?
what is the breaking strength of aramid rope that is 5 3/8 inches in circumference?
what size of aramid line is used in place of 6-inch nylon 3-strand line?
4 1/8 inches
how can sports of oil or grease be removed from synthetic lines?
cleaning with liquid soap and water or with a light oil, such as diesel or oil or kerosene
how are four-strand aramid lines designed?
to fail sequentially, meaning that one of the four strands will fail before the other strands
what action should be taken when rope is suspected of being shock loaded?
it is to be replaced
what action should be taken when rope shows burns or melting visible for a length over four times the rope circumference?
if possible, resplice. if too much damage, replace the rope
how much is nylon rope, on parting, stretched?
nearly one half of its original length. this length is recovered instantaneously on parting, causing snap back with hazardous force
what NSTM chapter describes the short splice in detail?
what is the purpose of splices?
they are used to make permanent eyes and permanent repairs in lines
what are the three general types of splices used in repairing lines?
eye, short, and long splice
why are four tucks mandatory when splicing nylon line?
because of its low friction and stretch characteristics
what determines whether a long or short splice is used to permanently join lines?
depends on how the line is to be used
what is the normal length of the eyes in mooring lines?
6 to 10 feet long, depending on the size of fitting; this prevents uneven loading of the eye
what three main components are involved in the eye splice of aramid line?
2)the individual strands
3)the standing part of the line
to make an eye splice out of manila or synthetic line, what length must you untwist the strands in the end of the line?
anywhere from 4 inches to 2 feet, depending on the size of line, and splice them into the standing part of the line by tucking the unlaid strands from the end into the standing part
what length of line is enough for an ordinary eye splice?
an original round of tucks, plus three more complete rounds
when making an eye splice with large lines, why must you whip the ends of the strands before you start?
they will unravel and become troublesome. large lines must also be seized at the point where the un-laying stops
when making your first round of tucks in a three-strand eye splice, what stand must always be tucked first?
the middle strand (facing you)
what is the key to making a perfect eye splice?
the first round of tucks
why is a long splice used to join two ropes when it is necessary that the rope runs over sheaves in a block?
it does not change the diameter of a rope materially
when making a long splice, how many turns do you unlay the end of each rope?
what type of splice should you use when a slight enlargement of the diameter of the line is no importance?
what is used for splicing double-braided line 3 inches in circumference or smaller?
a tubular fid and a pusher
what is used for splicing double-braided line larger than 3 inches in circumference?
only a wire fid
what tools also serve as "rulers" to measure with while splicing is being done?
when measuring 13 inches in circumference and smaller with a wire fid, what must be done to get the correct measurements?
you must double the measurements. for 14 inches and larger, you must triple the measurements
what is the fid length that you use for 6 inch circumference rope?
how much of the average new line strength does the standard eye splice in new double-braided line retain?
if the fid is not long enough to reach from one point to the other because of the eye size, what should you do?
bring the fid out through the cover, pull the core through, and reinsert the fid into the same hole it came out of
what should you do prior to whipping an eye splice in double-braided line?
stitch-lock the splice to prevent no-load opening
how many stitched should be put in a locking stitch?
what happens to a three-strand synthetic line when it is constantly coiled in the same direction?
it tends to tighten the twist or unbalance the lay
how may a three-strand synthetic line, that has the twist tightened or the lay unbalance, be corrected?
the line should occasionally be coiled down against the lay
what is the recovery characteristic of synthetic line called?
because of "memory", what is the one situation that should be avoided when synthetic line is being used?
synthetic line should not be stowed on a powered stowage drum/reel
what is the coefficient of friction of synthetic fibers in relation to that of manila fibers?
it is lower than manila, which means that synthetic lines will slip more easily than manila
why must you take an extra tuck when you splice synthetic lines?
because of its tendency to slip
when using a capstan or gypsy head to heave in a synthetic line, what is the minimum number of round turns you should take?
six or more turns plus two riding turns
why should personnel stay out of the direct line of pull when heavy strains are applied to synthetic line?
because synthetic line on parting is stretched as much as 50% (for nylon) of its length, and it parts with a snapback traveling at near the speed of sound
why should manila, wire, or spring lay rope NOT be used in conjunction with synthetic line is the same chock or on the same bitts or bollards?
because synthetic rope will cut manila, and wire and spring-lay will cut both manila and synthetic lines
what is the range for a safe working load (SWL) of line?
from 1/6 to 1/10 of the minimum breaking strength (BS) of the line when new, allowing for the type of application, the weather, and the blocks and other gear being used with the line
when should a tattletale cord be attached to synthetic lines?
when they are to be subjected to loads that may exceed their safe working loads
when a tattletale cord is suspended from two points on a synthetic line becomes taut, what does it indicate?
there is danger of the exceeding the SWL of the line
where should a single part of a three-strand line NOT be used?
for hauling or hoisting any load that is free to rotate
what type of nylon line stoppers are the most commonly used for holding nylon hawsers under load?
the crisscross and rat-tail
what size nylon line stopper is used for lines up to 6 1/2 inches in circumference?
a 3-inch stopper
what size of nylon line stopper is used on a line from 7 to 12 inches in circumference?
a 5-inch stopper
what is defined as the MINIMUM breaking strength (BS)?
the lowest BS encountered in all of the test samples broken. the actual BS of a line can be anywhere from the minimum BS to 35% higher
how are mooring lines named?
according to their use, as bowlines, stern lines, breast lines, or spring lines,
where is the bowline used?
runs through the bullnose or chock nearest the eyes of the ship and hols the bow in
where does the stern line run?
through the stern chock or quarter chock, holding the stern in
where is the breast line led?
nearly straight across the pier, controlling the distance of the ship from the pier. breast lines are called bow, waist, or quarter breasts
a spring line leads at what angle from the ship tot he pier?
about 45 degrees. it controls the fore and aft movement
what are the spring lines leading forward called?
the forward bow spring or the forward quarter spring
generally, what two requirements must be met by mooring lines?
first, they must be as light as possible for ease in handling; and second, they must be strong enough to take the strain of mooring, getting underway, and holding the ship in heavy weather
what is the standard moor on most ships?
six mooring lines
how are the mooring lines numbered?
from forward to aft and are called by number in line-handling evolutions because numbers are shorter and more precise than names
what type of inspection should be made during the breakout phase of preparing to moor?
all lines should be checked for abrasion, wear, breaks, or decomposition. the tattletale cord spliced into the synthetic lines must be checked
why should tattletale cords NOT be used to determine the strain on aramid fiber rope when being used for mooring lines?
because four-strand aramid fiber rope stretches only 6% at minimum breaking strength
what are the three methods used to deliver lines to the pier when going alongside?
heaving lines, bolos, and line-throwing guns
why is it important to have more than one heaving line on station?
in case the first throw fails, a second heaving line is readily available
what constitutes a bolo line?
a padded weight attached to the end of a nylon shot line, which makes it more effective in the wind
what precaution must be observed when using line-throwing guns?
it should not be loaded until it is actually needed; and when loaded, the gun must be pointed outboard, barrel up
what is the main object of a fender?
to protect the ship from contact with the pier or other ships
what is the most common ship fender?
a pneumatic fender made of rubber, about 4 feet long and 3 feet in diameter
how should orders be considered that are given to line handlers?
they should have the same meaning on deck as was intended for the bridge. all orders from the bridge must be carried out immediately
what is meant by the line handler order to "pass one"?
pass line number one to the pier; place the eye over the appropriate bollard but take no strain
what is meant by the line handler order to "take strain on one"
put line number one under tension
what is meant by the line handler order to "ease one"?
let number one line out until it is under less tension but not slacked
what is meant by the line handler order to "heave around on two"?
apply tension on number two line by hauling on it with the capstan
what does the line handling term "check five" most clearly mean?
hold number five line but not to the breaking point; allow only enough line to render around the deck fitting to prevent it from parting
what does the line handling term "single up" mean?
take in all bights and extra lines there remains only a single part of each of the normal mooring lines
when is the command "shift lines on the dock forward (or aft)" or "walk number one forward (or aft)" given?
when the ship must move up the pier or wharf in short steps
what term is used when two mooring lines are placed over the same bollard and one eye is lead through the eye of the other so they do no disturb each other?
dipping the eye
how does a ship normally frap her lines if pierside or inboard in the nest?
by wrapping the mooring line snugly with small stuff, marrying the three parts of the mooring line together
what are rat guards?
circular metal disks, which are lashed together on a mooring line, with the concave side to the pier
what must first be lashed to the mooring line to protect it from the metal rat guard?
canvas chafing gear
what are two characteristics of synthetic lines?
high elasticity and low friction
when easing-out from holding devices, using nylon, polyester, and other synthetic lines, why must extreme caution be used?
because of the high elasticity, rapid recovery, and low friction
what is meant by the term "knot", according to a Seaman's use of the term?
usually a line bent to itself, the knot forms an eye or a knob or secures a cord or line around something, such as a package
when is a bend ordinarily used?
to join two lines together
what is considered to be the best knot to use when bending together two lines that must reeve around a capstan?
the reeving line bend
what does the reeving line bend consist of?
taking a half hitch with the end of each line around the standing part of the other and seizing the bitter ends
what is a practical use for the double Matthew Walker knot?
it is used for keeping the end of a line from coming unlaid, as well as many uses in fancy work
why should the use of a double Matthew Walker be considered only a temporary measure when used for whipping the end of a line?
a proper whipping should be put on the line at the earliest opportunity and the knot cut off
what bend is used to bend a line to a becket or eye?
the fisherman's bend
how is the fisherman's bend knot tied?
simply take two turns through the eye. tie a half hitch through the turns and another half hitch around the standing part
what is the best knot to use for making a temporary eye in a mooring line?
where is a single bowline on a bight normally used?
for securing equipment or cargo
what is the knot used whenever it is desirable to have two eyes in the line?
the Spanish bowline
what is the primary use of the Spanish bowline knot?
as a substitute for the boatswain's chair
what is the knot to use for bending together two lines of different sizes?
the Becket bend
when is a double Becket bend always used?
to bend a gantline (riding up and down line) onto a Boatswain's chair
what knot is formed by two overhand loops crossing each other?
the carrick bend
what is provided by the carrick bend knot?
a very secure means of fastening two hawsers together, and has the advantage that when drawn taut, it assumes a form that can be passed around a barrel or winch
what bowline knot can be used to transport an unconscious crew member safely?
a French bowline knot
where is the masthead knot normally used?
for a lot of fancywork and for rigging a jury mast
how does a hitch differ from a knot?
a hitch ordinarily is tied to a ring, around a spar or stanchion, or around another line, it is not tied back on itself to form an eye or to bend two lines together
where is the rolling hitch used?
for passing a stopper on a boat fall, or mooring line when shifting the fall or line from the winch or capstan to a clear or bitts
what hitch is used on spars, planks, and/or other rough surfaced materials?
the timber hitch
what is the best hitch to use to bend a line to a round object?
a clove hitch
what knot is especially useful for bending a boat painter to a larger line whose end is unavailable?
the stopper hitch
where is the marline hitch used?
to secure on furled sails and to frap awnings and doubled-up mooring lines
when is the Blackwall hitch, single or double, used?
to secure a rope to a hook
where is the combination of a round turn with two half hitches used?
in a ring, in a pad eye, or on a spar. it is particularly useful on a spar because it grips tightly and holds its position
where is the barrel hitch used?
to hoist almost any bulky object, but particularly useful in hoisting barrels, drums, and boxes with no tops
where is the bale sling used?
for hoisting closed barrels, drums, and boxes
how is a monkey fist used?
on the end of a heaving line, and sometimes used as fancy work on the top of lifeline stanchions
what is the composition of a monkey fist?
four sets of turns taken at right angles to each other
what knot is used to take the load off a weak spot in the line?
the sheepshank know
when is a Miller's knot used?
to tie tops of bags, and it also serves as a handcuff knot or be used to lash two spars or poles together
where is the manrope knot used?
on the ends of the manropes of accommodation ladders or on other lines where large decorative knots are desired. it is also known as the double wall and crown knot
what is the main purpose of ornamental work or fancy work constructed from line or fabric?
as decorative coverings in areas where an enhanced appearance is desired
where are Turk's heads used?
it is usually thought of as strictly ornamental work, but it serves many useful purposes, such as keeping the leathers on lifelines or as the finishing touch on lanyards
how many strands should you start with if you want to make a six-strand Turk's head?
what covering is made with consecutive half-hitches?
when is coxcombing used?
it is used to cover boat hooks, bucket bails, handrails for ladders, and so forth
what formula is used to find the length of the strands for coxcombing?
multiply the length (L) of the rain in inches, times the circumference (C), times the number of turns (T) to the inch. Divide the product by the number of strands (3). Add about 10% to your answer for each strand to ensure an adequate working length
where is cross-pointing used?
on stanchions but can also be used in many other places where a round core is to be covered
what is normally used for cross-pointing?
strips of canvas, leather, or small stuff, such as white line, in multiples of four
what is the formula for determining the amount of line needed for cross-pointing?
multiply the length of the core to be covered by 3; to the answer obtained, add the product of the circumference to the core multiplied by 3
where can fox and geese be used?
to cover a handrail or stanchion. it can be used any place coxcombing or cross-pointing can be used
what is the length of each strand that encircles an object to be covered by fox and geese?
1 1/2 times the length of the work
what are the four different types of sennit?
2)Flat or English sennit
what is used to make a sennit, or braid?
small cord, such as cod line or Belfast cord
how is a sennit used?
to form ornamental lines or lanyards
how is common sennit made?
it is made from any odd number of strands
what is the only different between the flat, or English sennit, and the common sennit?
each outboard strand is woven over and under the strands on its own side before being brought to the inboard position in the other hand
how many strands are in a square sennit?
how is a square sennit made?
each outboard strand in passed around (behind) all but two of the other strands and brought back in front (to the side from which started)
what is the minimum number of strands that you should use in constructing a Russian sennit?
16, but it can be constructed from any number of strands divisible by 4
what is used for fancy curtains and trimmings for quarterdecks, admiral's barges, and captain's gigs?
how is Macnamara Lace constructed?
by stripping the cross strands from light canvas and then weaving them into intricate patterns
when are seizings used?
when two lines, or two parts of a single line, are to be married permanently
what should be used when two lines of a single line are to be married permanently?
"seizing stuff" which is generally rope-laid, tarred American hemp of 6, 9, or 12 threads
what is usually adequate for seizing small stuff?
what are the four different types of seizings used by Seaman in modern ships?
when is flat seizing used?
it is light and used where strain is not too great
what is the best seizing to use when there will be an unequal strain on two parts of line which as seized together?
where is throat seizing used?
it is actually round seizing and is used wherever a temporary eye is needed in the middle of a line
why is a hook "moused"?
to keep slings, straps, and so forth, from slipping out of the hook and to strengthen the hook if there is the danger that the load will bend it
what type of mousing is used to keep a strap or sling from escaping?
marline or rope yarn, and seizing wire or a shackle may be used if the purpose is to strengthen the hook
when are shackles moused?
whenever there is the danger that the shackle pin will work loose and come out because of vibration
what is the first step in making a boat fender?
lay a core, with or without two eyes, as desired
what kind of knots are used to make up the covering of a Navy style boat fender?
what size line should a rattail stopper to be used on 6 or 8 inch mooring lines be made from?
line at least 5 inches in circumference and should be about 10 feet long
how is the taper formed in a rattail stopper?
by cutting out increasing amounts of fiber as you work toward the ends
what is the basic unit of wire rope construction?
the individual wire made of steel or other metal in various sizes
how is wire rope designated?
by the number of strands per rope and the numbers of wires per strand, thus a 6x19 rope has 6 strands with 19 wires per strand
what type of wire rope is more resistant to external abrasion?
that which is made up of a smaller number of larger wires, but it is less flexible
what two methods are used to fabricate wire rope?
preformed and non-preformed
what does a fiber core contribute to a wire rope?
flexibility and also cushions the strands as the wire rope contracts under strain, and holds a portion of lubricant for continuous lubrication
why is a wire core better than a fiber core?
because it is stronger than fiber and can be used where conditions such as high temperatures would damage fiber
what is preformed fabricated wire rope?
a wire rope that has the strands of wires shaped to conform to the curvature of the finished rope prior to laying up
what is a non-preformed fabricated wire rope?
a wire rope with strands that are not shaped before fabrication
which type of wire rope tends NOT to untwist and is more flexible than the other when cut?
the preformed fabricated wire rope
what is used to put temporary eye splices into a wire rope?
wire rope clips
what is the correct way to place a rope clip on a wire rope?
always place the U-bolt over the bitter end and the roddle (saddle) on the standing part
how often should you tighten the wire rope clips on operating ropes?
every few hours and inspect the rope carefully at points where there are clips
why should you pay particular attention to the wire rope clip FARTHEST from the eye?
because vibration and whipping are damaging at that point and fatigue breaks are likely to occur
what is done to obtain maximum strength in a temporary eye splice?
use the correct size and number of wire clips. the size is stamped on the roddle between the two holes
how many wire rope clips are used on a 1 inch 6x19 wire rope?
what material is used for fabrication of wire rope?
annealed steel, traction steel, or improved plow steel. the basic metal may be plain or galvanized
what is the benefit to the wire rope of being galvanized?
it protects the rope from the elements, but makes it stiffer and reduces its strength by as much as 10%
where is galvanized rope most commonly used?
for standing rigging, and some running rigging (such as wheel ropes) where it is not subject to much wear
why is galvanized rope NOT used for hoisting jobs?
because the consistent bending and flexing as the rope runs over the sheaves and around drums causes the protective coating to crack and peel off
what are the five ways to lay-up wire rope?
1) right regular lay
2) left regular lay
3) right land lay
4) left land lay
5) reverse lay
how is right regular lay rope constructed?
wires in the strands are twisted to the left; strands in the rope are twisted to the right
how is left regular lay constructed?
wires in strands are twisted to the right; strands are twisted to the left
how is right lang lay wire rope constructed?
both wires in the strands and strands in the rope are twisted to the right
how is left lang lay wire rope constructed?
both wires in the strands and strands in the rope are twisted to the right
how is reverse lay wire rope constructed?
wires in alternate strands are twisted to the right, and those in the other strands are twisted to the left, while the strands are twisted to the right
which size construction of wire rope is the strongest of all the wire ropes, size for size?
what type construction of wire rope is used principally for heavy hoisting and is particularly useful on derricks and dredges?
6x19 when made of galvanized wire
what type construction wire is used for lifelines, wheel ropes, radio antennas, antenna downleads, and so forth?
the phosphor bronze 6x19 rope
which size construction wire rope is flexible and suitable for cranes and similar machinery?
6x37 when made of un-galvanized steel wire
how should wire rope be run off of a reel to a winch from or another reel?
run it from top to top or from bottom to bottom
how is wire rope uncoiled?
stand the coil on the edge and roll along the deck, uncoiling as you go
what problems are caused by reverse bends?
an unnecessary amount of shifting of the individual wire strands, increasing wear and fatigue
what does the term "fishhooks" mean?
broken wires that are caused by abrasions, or reverse or sharp bends that cause individual wires to breaks and bend back
when is a wire considered unsafe?
when 6 broken wires are found in one rope lay length, or 3 broken wires in one strand lay length, or 1 broken wire within one rope lay length of any end fitting
what information is required in order to determine the wear of a wire rope?
1) the original diameter of the wire rope 2)the present diameter of the wire rope at the worn place 3) the diameter of a single wire in one of the strands of the wire rope
where can the original diameter of a wire rope be found?
in the ship's allowance list or in the First Lieutenant's records
how can the actual diameter of a wire rope be determined?
by measuring it with a micrometer or vernier caliper
wire rope should never be stowed where it can be exposed to what elements?
where acid is or has been kept
what action is required prior to storage of wire rope?
it should always be cleaned and lubricated
why is it important to lubricate wire rope?
wire rope is really a mechanical device with many moving parts. each time the rope bends or straightens, the wires and strands must slide upon each other. lubrication also prevents corrosion of the wires and deterioration of the hemp core
what treatment must be given to used wire ropes before they are lubricated?
cleaned with wire brushes, compressed air, super-heated steam, JP-5, or turbine oil MIL-L-17331 (2190)
why should wire rope never be soaked in JP-5?
soaking in JP-5 may remove the lubricants from the inner wire rope and core. you may soak it in turbine oil if soaking is desired
what lubricant does the Naval Ship's Technical Manual, chapter 613, call for when lubricating wire rope?
a chain lubricant, military specification, MIL-G-18458 (ships). if unavailable a medium graphite grease or even motor oil may be substituted
why are lubricants normally applied hot to wire rope?
so they can penetrate the strands and the core more easily
what is seizing?
the process of securing one rope to another, two or more parts of the same rope to itself, or fittings of any kind to a rope by binding with small stuff or with annealed iron wire
what will happen if the ends of a wire rope is not secured properly?
the original balance of tension will be disturbed and maximum service will not be obtained
before cutting steel wire rope, what should always be done first?
you must apply proper seizing on both sides of the place where the cut is to me made
what direction should you always apply seizing in wire rope?
in the opposite direction from the lay of the rope
what tool should be used to increase tension on a wire rope 1 5/8 inches or more in diameter?
a serving bar or iron to increase tension on the seizing wire when putting on the turns
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