Last Modified: 2011-07-01
downslope movement of rocks and/or regolith under the direct influence of gravity
- material- rock, debris (=regolith), mud
- movement- falling, sliding, flowing
- speed- imperceptibly slow to more than 100 mph
- soil creep
- rock avalanches
"slow flow of regolith downslope"
cause: expansion and contraction
- literally "soil flow"
- "slow fow of water-saturated regolith over impermeable material"
- common where there is permafrost (permanently frozen ground)
- built to transport oil to oil refineries in CA and WA
- construction began 1973
- from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez
- half the route crosses permafrost
- elevated so the hot oi (140 F) l wouldn't melt the permafrost
- occur where regolith or other unconsolidated material is not held in place by vegetation
- in arid regions (SW U.S.)
- on flanks of stratovolcanoes
- common in Ohio Valley, Appalachian Plateau
- "sliding of coherent masses of rock and/or regolith on curved surfaces"
- caused by:
- loss of support
- addition of weight
- reduction in strength- weathering, saturation, seismic waves
- when the land gets wet it gets heavier
- if water permeates pore space, it creates pore pressure and keeps from grains from compacting and reduces strength of material
- "turbulent flows of unsaturated rock debris"
- reach speeds of 100 mph
- occur in mountainous terrains
- high relief
- long, steep slopes
80,000,000 tons of rock debris
- steep slopes (real)
- weak rocks (real)
- earthquake (immediate)- shattered marble
- major role in lowering and shaping continents
- risk greatest
- mountainous terrains
- earthquake belts
- hazard reduction
- identify slide-prone areas(geologic mapping)
- restrict use of high-risk areas (zoning, building codes)
- emergency planning
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