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What is the cell membrane made up of? What is its function?
made of a phospholipid bilayer of a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic fatty acid tail and transport proteins; semipermeable; controls substances going in and out of cell, boundary of cell
break down waste products with digestive enzymes
make ATP from glucose to fuel cell’s activities
Made up of fibers, what is the function of the cytoskeleton?
acts as skeleton and muscle, provides shape and structure, helps move organelles around the cell, made up of three types of filaments (threadlike structures)
Made up of cellulose, what structure is found in plant cells (not animal cells)?
What is the function of the Golgi complex?
stores, modifies, packages proteins
What large structure is found in plant cells (they store water)?
large water vacuoles
What process (uses light) occurs in chloroplasts (found in plant cells)?
What structures in the cell synthesize proteins (polypeptides)?
What material is found inside the cell between all the organelles?
What is the main difference between the two Domains of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes?
Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus and their DNA flows freely in their cytosol and Eukaryotes have a nucleus in their cells.
Each soap molecule is shaped so that its polar (hydrophilic) head faces the water, while its hydrophobic tail extends away from the water layer, trapping the water inside. It is the opposite of the cell membrane.
Where do proteins made on free-floating ribosomes go and where proteins made on ribosomes attached to ER go?
Know what molecules make up a protein (polypeptide).
tRNA brings amino acid
What are some ways Christianity is unique?
largest world religion, highly “portable”, official religion of Roman empire, broad appeal, trinity
strongly linked to Indian culture, aspects spread globally (yoga, karma), belief in polytheism
second largest world religion, highly “portable,” broad appeal rapidly growing
forth largest religion, influenced social/political movements worldwide
Why are these six faiths considered world religions?
Previous religions had all been local—all six of these religions have had an influence on society worldwide and have large communities of believers.
How have religions influenced human society?
· impact on art/culture
· adapted from contact with diverse people/cultures
· exercised economic power
· helped support social order/class systems, and also, at times undermined those class systems
· influenced political structures
· gave meaning/assistance to those undergoing hardship
o sometimes through charity
· sometimes ended in war`
a belief found in Hinduism and other Indian traditions that a person has a duty or obligation to live an honorable life
a belief found in Hinduism and other Indian traditions that the good and evil done in a past life determines the nature of that person’s next life
the basic teachings of Buddhism
Buddha, originally a member of a ruling family, meditated and achieved nirvana
the Chinese belief that a ruler’s power stemmed from divine authority
Name the five pillars of Islam
2. daily prayer
5. pilgrimage to Mecca
Unknown early history, Abraham was a real person born 4,000 years ago, God made a covenant to love them and for he and his descendants to follow God’s teachings, descendants known as Israelites/Hebrews, Abraham moved to Canaan and developed a kingdom, which later was taken over by the Babylonians (Jewish Diaspora)
How does Ponyboy change throughout the book? What makes him change?
What are the costs and benefits of conformity to a peer group? How do we measure these costs and benefits?
stereotyped, lose your individuality, people question groups based on rep everyone stands up for you
connect with them with similar interests
how you view the group as a whole/individual members how you feel being in the group
Exclusion; no friends forced to follow group's ideas to avoid conflict keep individuality maintain your own reputation and how people think of you freedom of actions how group treats you how you feel in group
Sunrise/sunset: Outgrowing and entering a stage (growing out of childhood, innocent child vs. growing up), people are not that different sunrise on East and West Side
Sunlight: experiences we face everyday
What does the ending say for Ponyboy and where he is now?
· Reflects the hardships he faces
· Accepts the deaths of Johnny, Dally, and Bob through his writing
· Understands that they were all people who are not defined their classes
· Wanted to write something that was important to him and share it
movements of molecules from high to low concentration
a water attracting region
forcing of material out of cell in bulk when the cell changes shape and the membrane fuses with cell membrane which requires energy
a membrane that controls what comes in and out of a cell
moving of cells from low to high concentration using energy (protein pumps, endocytosis, exocytosis)
diffusion of water across the membrane
What is a transport protein?
proteins that moves shapes from outside to inside (requires energy)
What is passive transport?
no energy needed; molecules move randomly from high to low concentration; down concentration gradient (Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, Osmosis)
Forcing material out of cell, hormones or wastes released from cell
Opposite of exocytosis; takes material in bulk into cell which helps cell form food vacuole and digests food, also how white blood cells eat bacteria
passive transport, transport proteins, high concentration, low concentration, energy, cell membrane
Diffusion requires no cellular energy and is the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to low concentration. This is passive transport because molecules need no energy to move down the concentration gradient. Facilitated diffusion requires energy because the molecules travel from low concentration to high concentration. An example of facilitated diffusion is through transport proteins on the cell membrane, which transport larger/charged molecules.
Electron Transport Chain
Glycolysis: cytoplasm, Krebs Cycle: mitochondria, The Electron Transport Chain: cell membrane
two sister chromatids connected by a centromere
This is an illustration that suggests something is occurring. Describe what is occurring. Use specific terms.
Below is an illustration that suggests something is occurring. Next to the illustration describe what is occurring. Use specific terms.
Solute is passively diffusing through the membrane through osmosis. The water flows to the area of higher solute.
Final Molecule (Product): pyruvic acid
The electron transport chain is the last step of aerobic respiration in the cell membrane. Electrons are passed from protein to protein. H+ ions are moved across the membrane through ion pumps and move back across the membrane, which creates ATP. Electrons are finally accepted by oxygen which join the H+ ions to make water. At the end of the ETC, 32 ATPs are produced. 36 ATPs are made in total.
Explain the process of lactic acid fermentation. Include in your response when/why are cells use this process.
Lactic acid fermentation occurs when no oxygen is present in animal cells. It ferments the pyruvates to lactic acid. This is to create energy when little or no oxygen is present. This leads to muscle fatigue.
The shift of belief from supernatural forces to people; a secular viewing of the world
non-religious; a more worldly view
· Helped spread the ideas during the Reformation, spread ideas to common people (all classes of people), first way to make books; old books had to be transcribed by hand, made by Gutenberg, production costs went down, caused a boom in literacy, mostly travel literature, could be used to make thousands of pages, end of Artisan Era to Manufacturing Era, gave people power with new info
Feudal system>Bubonic Plague/100 Years War>fears of monarchy and nobles as economy fails ALL people dying (hurt class system) > compromise to keep power/raise taxes/prevent revolts>magna carta model parliament>leverage of the common people>quality of life for common people increases, more $, more rights/freedoms>basic needs met, people started thinking of liberty, sought more meaning + democratic thought>search for meaning/enlightenment art/culture/science/tech>Renaissance
Locke: argued that the basic of government was a social contract in which people agree to be ruled in return for protection of their natural rights (life, liberty, property), if the government did not protect the rights the people could overthrow it
Montesquieu: contributed to The Age of Enlightenment by called for a separation of powers in government to executive, judicial and legislative
Voltaire: religious tolerance and freedom of speech
a biological weapon using the pathogenic bacterium Bacillus anthacis that was used in an act of terrorism in 2001 through letters
The “sexual” process in which the DNA passes through an extension on the surface of one bacterium and travels to another bacterium
bacteria that break down chemicals compounds to produce energy
Single or multicellular photosynthetic protists that live in fresh or salt water which are used to make polish and toothpaste because of their two part silica and glass shell as an abrasive and makes up a large percentage of the phytoplankton layer
a whip like structure, which allows locomotion
Identify a type of asexual reproduction in microbes. Identify a type of “sexual” reproduction in microbes.
Binary fission is asexual
Conjugation is “sexual” reproduction
Cyanobacteria are an interesting group of bacteria because of their ability to photosynthesize without chloroplasts. Biologists consider them an important group with respect to the evolution of plants. What chemical must they contain to be considered ancestors of plants?
Describe the advantages and disadvantages to the bacterial shapes of cocci and bacilli.
Cocci is small and has less surface area, so it absorbs nutrients slowly and is less prone to drying out
Bacilli is long and rod shaped and has more surface area, so it absorbs nutrients quickly and is more prone to drying out
What is a complex virus?
A virus with a tail or a phospholipid bilayer
How does the lysogenic cycle differ from the lytic cycle?
The lysogenic cycle is when the virus is dormant in each cell and embeds in the host cell’s DNA and divides and multiplies during mitosis. The lytic cycle is when the virus attaches to a host cell and releases more viral proteins.
Give at least two examples for each of the following protist categories.
animal-like: paramecium, amoeba
plant-like: algae, diatoms
fungus-like: downey mildew, water molds
What are protozoa?
moving heterotrophic protists
What characteristic do all protists have in common?
They all live in moist environments.
Explain how bacteria are harmful. Explain how bacteria are helpful.
Bacteria are helpful when they recycle essential nutrients in the soil, aid in animal digestion, produce food for consumption, and help produce chemicals used in medicines. They are harmful when they cause diseases. Some bacteria induced diseases include strep throat, tuberculosis, pneumonia, leprosy, and Lyme disease. Bacteria can also contaminate food and be used for biological warfare.
Draw and label a complex virus.
Volvox: autotrophic, nonmoving
paramicium: heterotrophic,moving, cilia
What is the function of a contractile vacuole in paramecium?
to pump out excess water
What type of algae live in cold ocean water and can grow up to 60 meters?
As heterotrophs, how do fungus-like protist obtain energy?
decompose organic matter
How are diatoms used commercially?
They are used to make polish and toothpaste as an abrasive from the silica in their cell wall
The parasitic Giardia is a member of what type of protist?
zooflagellates: protozoan heterotrophic protists
Which protists, Plasmodium vivax or Mixotricha is a parasitic sporozoan that moves with its host?
In terms of staining, how does nigrosin differ from methylene blue and crystal violet?
The difference between staining the bacteria with crystal violet or methlylene blue and nigrosin is that the crystal violet and methylene blue stain the cells in comparison to the nigrosin which stains the background and gives contrast to the cell.
What energy molecule is being harvested from microalgae as a biofuel?
What particular shape do the Stentor protist obtain when attached to a surface?
Name 3 present day countries that make-up the Mughal Dynasty
Which 6 countries do the Himalayas run through?
Name two rivers used by the Mughal Dynasty and the present day country they run through.
a. Indus River, Pakistan, China, and Bangladesh
b. Ganges River, India and Bangladesh
A strong economy was mostly due to the Mughal Dynasty’s advanced ship building industry, which had access to the Indian Ocean. Also, state owned factories produced luxury goods. Silk and cotton textiles, in addition to steel sold around the world.
What is an empire?
An empire is a major political unit having a territory of great area. An empire has politico-military control (controls its government and laws as well as military) over a culturally and ethnically distinct people from the imperial group (rulers of the empire). A single sovereign authority, rules over the economic and social lives of the empire’s people.
Ottoman Empire- Origin, migrated from
o Muslim tribal group
o Migrated from Central Asia and began expanding into Byzantine territory (eastern Roman Empire) and crossed into Europe
o The empire continued to expand and eventually took control of Mesopotamia, Arabia, Palestine and Syria Egypt and North Africa
o The Ottoman Empire was nearly the size of Ancient Rome
o Turkey is what is left of the Ottoman Empire
Important Leaders of the Ottoman Empire
o Mehmet II was the Ottoman sultan during the capture of Constantinople
o Suleyman the Magnificent ruled and was considered the greatest sultan of the Ottoman Empire – most conquest after Constantinople took place during his reign
o Ottoman society was ethnically diverse
o Ottomans were tolerant of different cultures and religious
o Less tolerant toward Shi’a Muslims
o Ottomans were Sunnis and saw the Shi’a as a challenge to their authority
o Legal codes were based on Sharia, or Islamic law (based on the Qur’an)
o After the death of Suleyman (no clear succession)
o The Battle of Lepanto in 1571 saw the Ottoman navy defeated by a combined European Christian fleet
o They failed to take Vienna, the capital of Austria’s Hapsburg Empire
o The Ottomans suffered from corrupt sultans and economic problemsThe empire was finally dissolved in 1923 after World War I
Origin and Expansion
· Akbar divided India into provinces and districts and established and established an efficient system of administration (vs. the centralized Ottoman government)
· Akbar ruled as an Indian, not a foreign conqueror (allowed people to have their own customs and traditions and was successful because he allowed anything they wanted to do)
· Akbar promoted tolerance by allowing Sunni Muslims, Shi’a Muslims, and Hindus to worship as they pleased
· Unfair taxes on Hindus were eliminated by Akbar
· Art and culture flourished under Akbar’s rule and brought together cultural traditions from the Indian, Persian, and Arab world (he did not persecute religions which caused a freedom of art; they were all able to express)
· **Persian was the official court language, yet it was blended with local tongues to form Hindi (official language of modern India) and Urdu official language of Pakistan)
Aurangzeb was a fervent Muslim leader who abandoned Akbar’s policy of tolerance toward Hindus/turned many Indians against Mughal rule, Rebellion broke out and various regions separated from the Mughal state Successful because of district and province system, Britain had taken advantage of the separation and gained control over large parts of India, India was essentially a British colony
Origin and Expansion - Tokugawa
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