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Amber C.

Appeal to Popularity

Many people believe p is true therefore p is true.

False Cause

A came before B therefore A caused B

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Appeal to ignorance

There is no proof that p is true therefore p is false

Hasty Generalization

A and B are linked one or a few times therefore A causes B(or vise versa)

Limited Choice

P is false therefore only Q can be true

Appeal to Emotion

P is associated with a positive emotional response therefore P is true

Personal Attack

I have a problem with the person or group claiming P so P is not true

Circular Reasoning

P is true and P is restated in different ways

Diversion (Red Herring)

P is related to Q and I have an argument concerning Q therefore P is true

Straw Man

I have an argument concerning or distorted version of P therefore I hope you are fooled into concluding I have an argument concerning the real version of P

AND statements

Given two propositions p and q, the statement p and q is called their conjunction. It is true only if p and q are both true.

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OR statements in and ex

Inclusive- either or both

Exclusive-one or the other, but not both

Inclusive unless told otherwise

OR Statements

Given two propositions p and q, the statement p or q is called their disjunction. In logic, we assume that or is inclusive, so the disjunction is true if either or both propositions are true, and false only if both propositions are false.

IF....THEN Statements

A statement of the form if p, then q is called a conditional proposition. Proposition p is called hypothesis and q is called the conclusion. The conditional if p, then q is true in all cases except when p is true and q is false.

Subset

A may be a subset of B or vice versa, meaning that all members of A are also members of B.

Disjoint Sets

A may be disjoint from B meaning that the two sets have no members in common.

Overlapping sets

A and B may be overlapping sets meaning that the two sets share some of the same members.

Categorical Propositions

All S are P; No S are P; Some S are P; Some S are not P

Inductive Reasoning

general to specific

Deductive Reasoning

specific to general

Absolute Change

absolute change=new value-reference value

Relative Change

Absolute change/reference value

Order of Magnitude

estimate specifies only a broad range of values, such as "in the millions"

Random

unpredictable

Systematic

measurement

Absolute Error

measured value-true va

Relative Error

absolute/true error

Accuracy

how close value is to the true value

Precision

more detail

Index Number

simple way to compare measurements made at different times or in different places

Inflation

rises of prices and wages over time

CPI Reported

Monthly

Consumer Price Index

represents an average of prices in a sample of more than 60,000 goods, services, and households

Rate of Inflation

relative change in CPI from one year to the next

Simple Interest

interest is only paid on the principal amount

Compound Interest

interest is paid both on the original principal and all the interest that has been added to the original principal

Prorate an Expense montly

divide the total expense into 12 months

4 Major Steps to making a budget

1. list monthly income

2. monthly expenses

3. subtact total expenses from total income

4. make adjustments as needed

Advantages to evaluating monthly budget

1. personal spending under control

2. stay out of debt

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