Many people believe p is true therefore p is true.
A came before B therefore A caused B
Appeal to ignorance
There is no proof that p is true therefore p is false
A and B are linked one or a few times therefore A causes B(or vise versa)
P is false therefore only Q can be true
Appeal to Emotion
P is associated with a positive emotional response therefore P is true
I have a problem with the person or group claiming P so P is not true
P is true and P is restated in different ways
Diversion (Red Herring)
P is related to Q and I have an argument concerning Q therefore P is true
I have an argument concerning or distorted version of P therefore I hope you are fooled into concluding I have an argument concerning the real version of P
Given two propositions p and q, the statement p and q is called their conjunction. It is true only if p and q are both true.
OR statements in and ex
Inclusive- either or both
Exclusive-one or the other, but not both
Inclusive unless told otherwise
Given two propositions p and q, the statement p or q is called their disjunction. In logic, we assume that or is inclusive, so the disjunction is true if either or both propositions are true, and false only if both propositions are false.
A statement of the form if p, then q is called a conditional proposition. Proposition p is called hypothesis and q is called the conclusion. The conditional if p, then q is true in all cases except when p is true and q is false.
A may be a subset of B or vice versa, meaning that all members of A are also members of B.
A may be disjoint from B meaning that the two sets have no members in common.
A and B may be overlapping sets meaning that the two sets share some of the same members.
All S are P; No S are P; Some S are P; Some S are not P
general to specific
specific to general
absolute change=new value-reference value
Absolute change/reference value
Order of Magnitude
estimate specifies only a broad range of values, such as "in the millions"
measured value-true va
how close value is to the true value
simple way to compare measurements made at different times or in different places
rises of prices and wages over time
Consumer Price Index
represents an average of prices in a sample of more than 60,000 goods, services, and households
Rate of Inflation
relative change in CPI from one year to the next
interest is only paid on the principal amount
interest is paid both on the original principal and all the interest that has been added to the original principal
Prorate an Expense montly
divide the total expense into 12 months
4 Major Steps to making a budget
1. list monthly income
2. monthly expenses
3. subtact total expenses from total income
4. make adjustments as needed
Advantages to evaluating monthly budget
1. personal spending under control
2. stay out of debt
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