What leg nerve courses around the head of the fibula and is commonly injured?
Fibroblasts have an accumulation of ceramide trihexoside?
Fabry Disease (angiokeratomas and progressive renal insufficiency)
What vitamin is important in transamination reactions?
What is the mechanism of action of nitrates?
cGMP, decreased intracellular calcium and decreased activity of myosin light chain kinase; myosin dephosphorylation
What anti-psychotic causes retinal deposits that simulate retinitis pigmentosa?
What anti-psychotic is associatedw tih corneal deposits?
What anti-psychotic is associated with prolonged QT?
Which anti-psychotic is associated with weight gain?
What is the 1st area of the brain to be damaged in global cerebral ischemia?
What structures does the 4th branchial pouch produce?
superior parathyroids, C-Cells
What structures does the 3rd branchial pouch produce?
inferior parathyroids and the thymus
What forms most of the bones in the face?
1st 2 pharyngeal arches (neural crest)
Embryological derivative of the anterior pituitary vs posterior pituitary?
anterior = ectoderm, posterior = neuroectoderm
Thalamus and hypothalamus (derived from the prosencephalon)
Where do all components of the cardiovascular system come from?
Splanchnic lateral plate mesoderm
difference between vasculogenesis and angiogenesis?
vasculogenesis is brand new formation of blood vessesl
What germnal layer forms the respiratory epithelium?
4 components of the diaphragm?
septum transversum, pleuroperitoneal membranes, dorsal mesentary of the esophagus (crura), lateral body wall
What is the embryological derivative of either testes or ovary?
sex cord (intermediate mesoderm)
as u move outward from the rER what is the organization of the Golgi?
cis - medial - trans
What is the difference between COP1 and COP2 (Coat Protein)?
COP1coats vesicles in the retrograde direction from the golgi to the ER; COP2 coats vesicles in the anterograde direction from the ER to the golgi
What phase of the cell cycle is where DNA synthesis occurs at?
What state (of phosphorylation) is the Rb gene active?
hypophosphorylated state (binds E2-F)
3 junctional complexes?
Zona occludens (tight junction); Zona adherens (links actin); Macula adherens (desmosome)
What secretes the basal lamina?
What junctional complex prevents leakage between cells?
What junctional complex links actin filamants between cells?
Endothelial selectins are involved in what phase of extravasation?
rolling; ICAM is involved in adhesion
What type of collagen is abundant in the reticular networks of highly cellular organs such as spleen?
Type 3 (stains with silver)
What enzyme is key to the resoption activity of osteoclasts?
Which muscle filaments are attatched to the Z-line (actin or myosin)?
What do the A band of the sarcomere consist of?
Myosin (all of it) + overlapping actin
What does the H band consist of ?
What does the I band of skeletal muscle consist of >?
During contraction, which sarcomere ban is unchanged (A, I or H)?
Is troponin present in smooth muscle?
What are the three layers of the cerebellar cortex?
molecular, purkinje, and granular (MPG)
Which part of the nervous system (CNS or PNS) has a 1:1 ratio of myelinating cell and axon?
PNS; Scwann cells in the PNS only myelinate 1 axon
ANP is secreted by the heart in response to (increased or decreased) plasma volume?
Increased Plasma Volume
Describe MHC class 2 processing?
MHC class 2 is in the ER bound to the invariant chain; the invariant chain prevents endogenous proteins from binding and guides the MHC class 2 through to the golgi; In a vesicle the invariant chain disintegrates and CLIP is still bound to the MHC 2 molecule. HLA-DM is required to remove CLIP
Which MHC (1 or 2) is associated with CLIP and HLA-DM?
MHC class 2
Which MHC complex requires the use ot the TAP transporter?
MHC 1 (TAP transports peptides from the cytoplasm to the rER)
What enzyme activates trypsinogen?
What is the function of paneth cells?
secrete lysozyme, defensins '"?
What happens to the hepatic stellate cells after chronic alcoholism?
conveted to myofibroblasts > collagen > fibrosis > cirrhosis
What does the fetal adrenal cortex produce?
DHEA goes to the placenta > estrogen
What stimulates production of melatonin in the pineal gland?
What part of the follicle synthesizes androgens? What part estrogen?