MC 101-AV Notes June 1-30, 20111 Notes for June 1, 2011 Uses of Mass Communications Surveillance News Information Correlations?interpretation Editorials Columnist Pundits/talk shows Transmission of Values Social values Political values Economic values Entertainment Reading Listening Watching Surfing Market Function Business Consumers Economy Types of Communication Interpersonal?self talk Intrapersonal?dyad talk/ two people Group Small group?3 to 35 people Large group?35 people and up Mass communication?very large, anonymous, and heterogeneous audience ***Mass Media Communication: goes through a medium*** ***Telecommunication: long distance, instantaneous*** Mean of Communication Non-Verbal?signs, gestures, body language Symbolic?object represents things Symbol?alphabets (aided in the creation of words) Vocal or Textual?voice and print Basic Model of Communication Linear?the sender-receiver Interactive?sender, receiver, feedback loop, sender Transactional?no sender or receiver SMCR?sender, message, channel, receiver Ritual?performing (being a part) Publicity?competition for attention Reception?audience makes own meaning Notes, June 2, 2011 The Laswell Model Who? Bloggers Pundits Journalist Said what? News (event) Themes What?s the message about? Comments/opinions In what channel? Media used: books, newspaper, magazine, Internet, television, radio, etc. To whom? Audience: readers, listeners, viewers, their characteristics, preferences, ideologies, etc. With what effect? Consequences of al the above on an individual and society Areas of affect Cognitive?thinking Attitudinal?feel Behavioral?act Psychological?actions & feelings Theories about Informational Flow Agenda-setting theory?the mass media is more effective at determining what we think about but not what we think. Two-step theory?the mass media impact is filtered through opinion leader. Spiral of Silence theory?on going issues, the more people express one viewpoint, the fewer people would express an opposing viewpoint. Learning and Attitude Theory Media Determination (McLuhan) ? the medium is the message; what medium you use coveys the message. Linear thinking Holistic thinking Printed media made us more linear thinkers Holistic thinking is not precise. Knowledge-Gap Theory?new information widens gaps between high and low-knowledge groups. Social Learning Theory?Information, interpretation, and incorporation. Cultivation Theory?the more TV people watch the more they perceive society as bad. Stimulation/Catharsis Theory Stimulation?media violence primes people for violence Catharsis?media violence help people rid themselves of violent inclinations. Hypodermics Theory?all powerful media: direct and unmitigated effect Bullet Point Theory?Counterpoints: selective exposure, selective perceptions, and selective retention (will remember whatever more consistent within our own worldview) Uses and Gratification Theory/Functional Theory?an individual?s social and psychological needs determine exposure and impact. Critical Theory (Political Economy)?contends that the profit motive is the driving force behind much of what happens in society. Notes for June 6, 2011 Profits drive US media Advertisers have leverage on the media Even ?paid media? require funding (e.g., movies) require funding. Most media companies are part of larger conglomerates. Major Trends and Concepts Synergy: idea that the whole more than the sum Company A $ 2 million Company B $ 3 million Company A+B= $ 6 million Conglomeration: several companies merging: acquisitions, takeover, divestment; unstable and schizophrenic. Integration: horizontal or vertical Horizontal?same business type merging; e.g. Cingular & AT&T. Vertical?different business types merge; e.g. Disney (movies) and Pixar (animation) short head: major conglomerate; few but dominate long tail: small companies; strength from numbers Major Media Conglomerates Time Warner Disney News Corporation Viacom Bertelsmann ***Advertisers have control over what we view and hear on television Monday & Tuesday, June 8, 2011 Test# 2 and midterm next week Review of Test# 1 (What I Missed!!!) 2. Mass Communication very large, anonymous, heterogeneous. 4. Intrapersonal communication involves one person. (Intra-one/ inter-two) 14. After the first televised presidential campaign?Media determinism (McLuhan). 18. If Verizon buys Nokia that would be an example of: vertical integration. 20. This company is the largest media conglomerate in the US?Time Warner. 24. When media violence make people become fearful of society that illustrates this effect: psychological. Viewing Question from documentary watched on June 7, 2011 What impact did the invention of the printing press have on human memory? We no longer recall events with the same clarity and prowess because we no longer have to remember anything; in ancient times, your word was your honor. What is the contemporary equivalent of the troubadours? Journalist or reporters What was the origin of the accounting and legal terms ?auditing? and ?hearing?? Auditing means hearing the accounts read aloud, and hearing comes from the court system. In the early courts, people gave their testimonies out loud for everyone to hear the evidence or the recall of important information. What was ?Memory Theater?? A learning strategy that paired recalling with visualization, people would imagine they are entering a house, and in the house they imagined odd pairing yet similar, such as a Royal Ruler like Queen Elizabeth represented Geometry or the justice scales and scaling the stairs represented music. Before the invention of the printing press, what institutions was the ?repository of knowledge?? The Church and monasteries copied book by hand and it took a really long time, and it was very costly. Books were limited to the church and those that could afford them. What occupational group was primarily responsible for copying manuscripts, and why did they not edit out errors? Monks were the primary scribes. What personal circumstance forced Johannes Gutenberg to develop moveable type, the original printing press? Gutenberg was indebted to his partners. He mistakenly forgot the date for selling a product at a market, and so, he had to come up with another means for paying his debt. Sure, Martin Luther started the Protestant revolution (the Reformation). But credit should go to Gutenberg too. Why? Martin Luther used the printing press to assert his ideas. He wrote articles, issued propaganda, etc. True or False. Martin Luther intended his ?95 theses? to be widely circulated? The mass printing and use of this document by the Catholic Church was what incensed Luther and inspired the ?95 theses.? The indulgence form was being used by a bishop to pay off his personal debts. Martin Luther saw this as an abuse of power and the church was going against scripture. Books Ch. 4, June 8, 2011 Writing Before the Printing Press Ancient Mediums Caves, walls: Carving, painting Stones, clay tablets: Inscriptions Papyrus; papyrus plant peelings Parchment: Animal skin (more durable) Medium-Ancient and Modern Paper: Unappreciated communication technology: durable, portable, inexpensive. Forms & Text Pictograph: pictorial representation Ideograph: abstract symbol for ideas Alphabets: letters representing sounds; most versatile, easier to learn. ***Forms & Text became more complex as we evolved*** Books before the Printing Press Handwritten Hand reproduced?usually by monks Hence limited in number Ensured orthodoxy Invention of the Printing Press Inventor: Johannes Gutenberg (1445) Personal circumstances: indebted Basic principle: Moveable and interchangeable letters. Impact (con?t) Bible translated into other languages besides Latin Ushered in intellectual, religious revolution. Facilitated the standardization of language ***The printing press standardized language** Books: Oldest Mass Medium Quote ?The prime guarding of the symbolic culture of the nation? ?Shirley Biagi ***the primary way people convey information; still important** Publishing Process Book proposal Acceptance/contract: length, due date, advance fee, royalty %, copyrights Completion / submission of book Editing, corrections Proofing Productions/circulations ***You may have to go through an agent*** Major categories of books Trade books Catch-all name for general readership books both fiction and non-fiction Hardcover Sold in general bookstores Mass market paperbacks Typically found in department stores. Textbooks Elhi and college (elementary/high school) Cost and adoptions (p. 132) Politics Vanity Press Self-publishing Author pays cost of productions, responsible for distribution Rarely profitable. Notable Names in Publishing William Caxton Consider first printer in English Language Helped to standardized spelling, usage. Early printer?s not mere technicians. Benjamin Franklin Most successful colonial era printer, publisher Poor Richard?s Almanac First circulation library in the U.S. Study Questions (Take Home) Who is Salmon Rushdie and what is his claim to fame as an author? What category of books is selling faster, audio or e-books? What are the dominate e-book readers in the market? Why are blockbusters so important to the book industry?
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