The ability to understand and make productive use of the media.
The analysis used to assess the effects of media on individuals, on societies, and on cultures.
Assess effects of media on individuals, societies, and cultures.
The process of human beings sharing messages.
The creation of shared meaning
Messages that return from the receiver of a message to the source of that message.
someone responding back after you send a message
Anything that interferes with the communication process.
Messages conveyed through an interposed device rather than face-to-face.
An interposed device used to transmit messages.
Ex: Print media: books, magazines, and newspapers. Broadcast media: television, and radio. Digital media (new media): internet, and cell phones, and Entertainment media (part of digital media): movie, recordings, and video games.
an interposed device used to
Plural of Medium.
Mediated messages transmitted to large, widespread audiences.
Mediated messages transmitted to large wide-spread audiences
Those who determine what messages will be delivered to media consumers.
Ex: Producers, Editors, Sponsors, reporters, and executives.
Those who determine what messages will be delivered
Who determines what gets left in a message and what gets left out?
Those who determine what
messages will be delivered, how they will be constructed and when they will be delivered
Mediated Interpersonal Communication
The sharing of personal messages through an interposed device.
~DOES NOT INVOLVE FACE-TO-FACE CONTACT.
~Web cam is not considered face-to-face, you are merely talking to a facsimile of another person.
The merging of technologies, industries, and content, especially within the realms of computer, telephone, and mass media.
Ex: The iPhone
Merge technologies, industries and content,
especially within the realm of computer
ex.telephone with media
Writing style that separates fact from opinion.
In Germany, Johannes Gutenberg's printing press allows books to be mass-produced, and sets in motion a revolution in the way people learn and think.
Publick Occurrences, the first newspaper in America, is shut down by the government after one issue.
The first magazines in America are published, creating a new medium that has greater durability than a newspaper, but fewer pages than a book.
The First Amendment to the Constitution is ratified (Freedom of Speech). More than any other event, this symbolized the U.S. government's commitment to free speech and created controversies about media freedom that continue to this day.
The Industrial Revolution begins in the United States, bringing with it the expansion in business that creates the need for new and different media.
Edison patents the first practical motion picture projector, leading to the huge international success of the silent film industry in the 1920's.
Guglielmo Marconi patents radio technology, moving mass communication from "wired" to "wireless"
Television of broadcast quality is demonstrated for the first time at the New York World's Fair.
Home users begin communicating via the Internet, a new medium that brings interpersonal messages together with mass communication as never before.
The displacement of a nation's customs with those of another country.
Ex: France and Canada, have both imposed limits on the importation of U.S. Television programming.
The displacement of
a nation’s customs with those of another country
Economies of Scale
Savings that come with mass production.
Ex: When large numbers of units are produced, each unit costs less.
economies of scale
savings that accrue with
mass production; volume up, price down
Comes from the Greek word meaning "to work together."
A combination in which the whole is more than the sum of its parts.
Ex: College students working on class project. Combining personnel with different types of knowledge or skills. Such a group allows people with different talents to inspire each other to new levels of creativity and productivity; they produce more as a group than they could as individuals working alone.
a combination in which the whole is more than the sum of its parts
Promoting a product in one form to sell et in some other form.
Group Ownership (also called chain ownership)
The acquisition of the same type of business in more than one market area by one company.
Ex: Owning multiple newspapers
Large companies that own many different types of businesses
A business model in which a company owns different parts of the same industry.
Ex: Owning a Newspaper company, a paper mill, and an ink plant.
Laws that prohibit monopolistic practices in restraint of trade.
Ex: You can't vertically integrate for the sole purpose of making it impossible for other companies to compete with yours.
Corporate Growth through the acquisition of different types of businesses.
Ex: Owning a Newspaper company, and then buying a radio station or TV station to promote that newspaper.
Ex2: Oprah promoting her 'O' Magazine on her talk show.
French for "enterpriser." An individual who invests the time and money to start an new business.
~Usually someone who is willing to take a considerable risk on a new idea.
Varying degrees of government control and ownership of media.
Ex: China; most media are government owned and operated, but private ownership of some media is now being allowed.
Varying degrees of
government control and ownership- south america, mexico, India, italy
The U.S. Model
American Media & American Government are interrelated in three important ways: (1) Media businesses are subject to government regulation, (2) The media act as a potential watchdog or "fourth estate" of government, (3) The media are the principal channels through which political campaigns take place.
The "Fourth Estate"
Government preventing material from being printed
conclusion of two cases: the media must be
allowed to publish; they can be prosecuted after
the fact if they break a law, but they must not be
prevented in advance from publishing.
A research method in which observers systematically analyze media subject matter.
observers systematically analyze media subject matter
The Invasion From Mars Study *The War of the Worlds*
The People's Choice Study
An examination of how media affected voter behavior in the 1940 presidential election.
~Didn't affect voters enough to change opinion.~
The People's Choice Study
1940 examined how media affected voter behavior
Method that ensures that every member of the population being studied has an equal chance of being chosen.
Ex: In The People's Choice Study, randomness was assured by visiting every fourth house in the country.
• Selective perception
hilary clinton's suit
caused people with different
views to remember the same event differently
an edge movie- Mormon vs not
well-informed people who help
others interpret media messages
ex. your family
two step flow
Communication process in
which media effects travel through opinion
Media investigations devoted to practical, commercial purposes.
Ex: Radio and television ratings, public relations research, and the research performed by ad agencies.
depend on careful observations of, and thinking about, media and society.
What did Marshall McLuhan call the TV-centered society?
long term exposure of mass media was eventually found to be desensitizing
ex. showing guts in law in order
A set of related statements that seek to explain and predict behavior.
Model that predicts that media will have swift and potent influence.
Ex: The Payne Fund Study is one of these.
Model that predicts that media will have little influence on behavior.
Ex: The People's Choice Study, and the American Soldier Study are both one of these.
Model that predicts that media can have a combination of influences.
mixed effect model
which predicts that sometimes media will have powerful effects, sometimes minimal effects, and sometimes - depending on a complex variety of contingencies - a mixture of both
Explanations of the way effects travel from the mass media to their audiences.
Media shoots messages at you
Social Learning Theory
Social Learning Theory
modeling theory, assumption that people learn to behave by observing others.
Individual Differences Theory
The idea that media cultivates you into thinking a certain way.
Ex: If you watch a lot of violence, you think the world is more violent than it really is.
This theory grows on you if you think the world is more violent than it really is:
Predicts that over time, media use will
“cultivate” within users a particular view of
ex. people always dead on tv shows
agenda setting theory
Media not good at telling us what to think, but very good at telling us what to think about
amt of attention gives us the level of importance
Uses and Gratification Theory
Diffusion of Innovations Theory
Diffusion of innovations theory
5 types of people have different levels of willingness to accept new ideas from the media.
diffusion of innovations theory
ﬁve types of people have different levels of willingness to accept
new ideas from the media:
Cumulative Effects Theory
computer systems analyst
study organizations information systems and make recommendations to improve efficiency and effectiveness
responsible for the develpment and management of the organization's database
Writing software codes, testing and debugging software, keeping and maintaining
spend much of their days designing and maintaining websites. These professionals should see about 65,000 newbies join their ranks in the next few years.
writes computer programs or software segments that allow the information system to perform a specific task
research, design, develop, calculus and trig
fix things, go-to person, organizes controls
Computer Systems Administator
ensure that email and data networks work properly. maintain servers
buildings, bridges, design and oversee construction
Chuck Hull invented and patented stereolithography
mediated-carried out through technology or like writing a letter to somone(focus of the class)
In Germany, Gutenberg's printing press allows books to ve mass produced
First Newspaper in America, Shut down by the government after one issue.
First magazines in America are published.
First Amendment to the Constitution is ratified.
The industrial Revolution, need for new and different media.
industrial revolution begins
Thomas Edison Invents the phonograph.
Edison patents first motion picture projector, start of silent film industry
Thomas Edison patents the first motion picture projector
Marconi patents radio technology.
radio tech knowledgie
Television broadcast quality is demonstrated
tv quality is shown
Home users begin using the internet
Payne Fund Study
1929, study of movies influence on children
payne fund study
13 separate investigations into the inﬂuence movies had on the
behavior of children
War of the Worlds
The great depression and looming threat of WWII had created an audience that believed anything could happen
war of the worlds
"invasion of mars"-said it on radio
The economic insecurity of the Great Depression and looming threat of WW II made people edgy.
American Soldier Study
1942 film given to army recruits. Found films did not have direct, powerful effects.
Books recorded on tape or some other medium (CD)
Books that exist as a digital file
Bay Psalm Book
fiction and non-fiction sold to public; largest share of books.
El-Hi Texts; College; Cultural importance.
Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Atlases, etc.
Specialized occupation: Law/West; Medical, Engineering, etc.
Obtains books to be published
Works directly with the author during the writing of the book, suggestions, changes
Polishes a manuscript line by line and prepares it for typesetting
Laudatory comments that are placed on the cover of books.
Book lovers; 50 or more a year
enjoy, read a few books a year
Read for work or studies
Never learned how to read
Those who can read but do not
News of business and shipping
Owned and supported by political parties
Era of inexpensive ad-supported newspapers started in 1830s
Use of exaggeration and lurid elements to produce a startling effect
Published as part of an organization's communication with members.
Provide a different viewpoint on news.
Alternative newspapers of 60s and 70s criticized cultural and political norms.
Audit Bureau of Circulation
Verify circulation of newspapers and magazines
Brokers for newspaper entertainment and specialty items.
U.s. Department of Defense sets up a computer network called the Advanced Research Project Agency Network (ARPANET), connecting university, military, and defense contractor computers. This is considered the birth of the Internet.
Civilian researchers who had been excluded from ARPANET invent Usenet, which features discussion groups.
CompuServe, the first successful general interest online service, begins operating.
America Online begins operation, with simple point-and-click software that quickly makes it the most popular online service.
The World Wide Web, invented by Tim Berners-Lee, becomes public, allowing users easy access to the Internet.
Marc Andreessen, a student at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, creates Mosaic, the first Web browser.
The Internet is turned over to the public sector, partly because there are so many civilians on it that it can no longer be used for national security purposes.
Kenneth Starr's Office of the Special Prosecutor releases its report of the Bill Clinton-Monica Lewinsky affair over the Internet. Within 48 hours, 25 million people access it, establishing the internet as a true mass medium.
Myspace purchased by News Corp.
youTube purchased by Google.
Having your own blog becomes a trend.
Third Person Effect
You think media affects other people more than it affects you.
Third Person Effect
When a movie doesn't affect you but might affect others is an example of what?
Integrated marketing communication
A corporations coordination of PR and advertising efforts
True or False,
Media is plural
True or False,
Porn might sometime have First Amendment protection, Obscenity never does.
True or False,
It is legal to burn an American flag
True or false PR is about making you feel good about an idea or image
True or False
US gov. and PR abroad is legal
Every person in the population has an equal chance to be selected in a sample.
Does not have First Amendment protection
How media portrays events. What gets left in a message and what gets left out.
how mass media affects the standards by which people evaluates political figures and events
This is why conservatives listen to Rush Limbaugh and liberals don't.
When you consume media that reinforces your beliefs your'e engaging in what?
Who is taller? Yao Ming, Ralph Sampson, Kareem Abdul-Jabber?
What are the 7 News Values?
Which news value means "more important news", "the bigger the news the more people it impacts"
Which news value has to do with how fast news comes out & people like to be informed on current stuff?
Which news value "involves important people like celebrities"?
Which news value means "news happens near you"?
Ex: local situation gets lots of attention but arent herd about in other parts of the world
Which news value means "its not news if a dog bites a man, its news if a man bites a dog?"
Which news values means "two people don't agree" & "strife is news worthy"?
Which news value means "news about the news?"
it is Voluntary
True or False,
The US government requires the film industry to provide ratings for movies?
Neil Postman's "Amusing Ourselves to Death"
Whos book said that images make assertions?
NO, statements make assertions not images
Do images make assertions?
Subscribers to ADVERTISERS
(first time for paper to use advertising as revenue base)
What did the New York Sun shift the mass medias revenue base too?
In the 1840s a group of newspapers saved money by creating this news cooperative:
Using a word that people do not understand could insert what time of noise in your message?
Static keeping you from hearing message
(AM Radio, or Satellite TV when it rains)
What is Channel noise?
What type of noise occurs when you are too upset of stressed to receive a message accurately?
What are the 4 types of communication?
What type of communication is "thinking message to yourself"?
What type of communication is "conversation among 2 people?"
What type of communication is "talking to a crowd without a medium"?
What type of communication is "have to have a communication medium, and not much feedback?"
What are the 4 theories of the press?
Which theory of the press means "the truth is out there, and its up to you to go find it?"
Privately owned, free of government control: Ideal -canada, us, australia
Which theory of the press means "truth is what King says it is and the King is always right?"
Which theory of the press is the "idea that government owns mass media and truth is that we will one day have a perfect society?"
Need to be fair and accurate
What are some External Audiences for public relations practitioners?
3 purposes of Mass Media?
(Same thing just called different things)
What is this an example of?:
"you call it taxes, I call it revenue enhancement."
Who invented World Wide Web and gave aways the software for free?
What theory says we learn stuff in media by hearing it over and over and over?
What is "Internet" and abbreviation for?
What event led to radio becoming well known nationwide?
What "brow type" of media content would you find in "People" magazine?
Ideas, operas, ballets
What is High Brow media
What is Middle Brow?
People magazine, Jersey Shore, The Real World
What is Low Brow?
(because everyone can handle it generally)
What is America's No. 1 radio format?
Time, Place, and Manner restrictions
What is the name of the rule that means you can't use a bullhorn in a University classroom without permission?
Every place on the Web is found by this:
Universal Resource Locator
What does URL stand for?
This person ultimately decides a messages meaning:
how many receivers in us
675 million receivers in US
persistence of vision
Typical: 24 frames per second
How our eyes briefly "hold on" to an image:
(Engineering of Consent)
His Uncle Freud gave him insight into people that made him a PR pioneer
The 4 times of year we don't have to watch re-runs on network TV:
Edward named this invention from the Latin for "to write sound"
Before flat platters stored sound, Edison stored sound on what?
Who created the first AD agency?
"Even though it's not technically accurate, it's still OKAY to say your company makes the best marshmallows ever" is an example of what?
legal but means nothing
What are the 3 technological foundations of mass media?
When ads are "hidden" inside a show or film, which explains why American Idol judges love Coke.
Who created the SMCR model?
What is the name of the model that explains mass communication?
Source, Message, Channel, Receiver
What does SMCR stand for?
media's "watchdog" role named by Edward Burke
The first satellite-based network for cable TV was?
In the 1400s is Bibles included more than just words printed using movable type
gave us the printing press
Is browsing the web a hot or cold medium?
This type of medium requires a great deal of audience involvment
Are movies a hot or cold medium?
What was William Tecumseh Sherman's alma mater?
Entertainment Sports Programming Network
What does ESPN stand for?
The notion that different messages affect different people at different times
is watching TV while folding clothes a hot or cold medium?
Yellow Kid Cartoon
The lead characters from the first important U.S. comic strip gave us the term for "nasty journalism"
NY Times v. Sullivan
(LB Sullivan was commissioner)
This supreme court case made it harder for Madonna to win a libel lawsuit
When you don't really know a celebrity you only think you do is an example of what?
(Hot paying attention)
This process lets media affect the standards in how people evaluate stuff
Mass Media sets the agenda
"We dont decide what people think, instead we decide what people think about" is what?
Federal Communication Commission
Who regulates radio?
Federal Communication Commission
regulated political ads on tv and radio
Who sent the first wireless message?
founded by Sarnoff, created the 1st real radio station, "KDKA"
lots of static
changed to talk radio to get listeners when FM took over.
The job in radio responsible for disguising the mechanical nature of the format.
The Jazz Singer
What was the first movie with sound?
Nanook of the North
What was the first documentary?
Provided film in 1889
& created Eastman Kodak.
The Hays Code
Code written of what could and couldn't be shown in movies, no longer in effect today.
ratings system that is VOLUNTARY!
Source sends a
Message over a
Channel to a
What does SMCR mean?
Who do we thank for the Internet?
What was the original Internet called?
Multiple data signals use the same channel without interference Internet can send several things through one tube at one time so everyone can use Internet at same time
Does the Internet have rules that everyone follows?
MIL net or Military Net
What did the ARPA net eventually become?
National Science Foundation 1983-1995
Branched from and supported ARPANET before the Net was available for civilian use
Advanced Research Project Agency Network
What does ARPANET stand for?
Who runs the Internet today?
No everybody owns it
Does anybody control the Internet?
What is the number 1 use of the Internet?
Started by students and was the first "search engine" format that allowed you to go look up specific genres that interested you
Google became Google Groups
Who bought USENET?
Lawyer in Arizona sent out unsolicited messages to USENET users and it made people really mad.
Who created the First spam message?
Because Geeks created the Internet and geeks like the movie Monte Pithon and spam is talked about a lot in that movie
Where did the term Spam come from?
NO Internet > Web
Is the Internet and the web the same thing?
HTTP & HTML
What 2 standards for the Web did Tim Berners-Lee give us?
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
What does HTTP stand for?
Hypertext Markup Language
What does HTML stand for?
First web browser that made it possible to point and click on the Internet Created by guy at University of Illinois
What was Mosaic?
How many web hosts were there in April 2012?
Standing still .html or .htm
What is a static page?
.jsp, .php, .cfm Created for you using a database Ex: eBay search is an active page
What is an active page?
Email Entertainment & information Commerce Communities
How we use the Internet today?
What thing created a lot of the ways we use the Internet?
Term that means "how much data can get through a channel"
The way to take away boring parts of a message to send it faster
Downloading while watching
Content on Internet is neutral
What is this an example of: If you are downloading a movie and neighbor is downloading research, nobody's content gets put on hold. It depends on who gets there first.
Both. Internet is a global village
Is the Internet a hot or cold medium?
Sites where users create content allows anyone to altar info of a page How fb and twitter make money
The art & social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organization leaders, & implementing planned programs of action which serve both the organization & the publics interests
The management function that establishes & maintains mutual relationships between an organization & it's publics
The truth well told
Hype Spin (lying) Being "good with people" Free advertising Throwing good parties
What GOOD PR is NOT
False it is NOT
True or false Public Relations is Advertising
NO Journalists are not trying to change your minds about anything PR is trying to makeup your mind for you by persuading you
Is public relations journalism?
Research Counseling Communication
What are PRS roles?
Define problems Identify publics Test concepts Monitor progress of campaigns
What does PRS role of research do?
Advise management in decision making Suggest policies for internal & external comm. Promote positive corporate image
What does PRs role of counseling do?
Internal publics: Those within organizations, including employees an stockholders External: outside organization, community,
What is the communications role in PR?
Agency Corporate Nonprofit Government Healthcare Education
Is this internal or external publics?: When I get an email from UA as a student
Internal or external?: Before I was a student and got emails from UA
The Boston Tea Party
What event in 1773 was a form of PR that stirred reaction and led to the establishment of our nation
the "Fiji mermaid" made up story of mermaid, hired man to pretend to be Dr. Griffon lectured about mermaid, ppl payed for it.
Who was P.T. Barnum and what was his PR scam?
People didn't like him, owned oil companies VERY rich. Hired PR man to advise him how to get ppl to like him
Why did John D Rockefeller need PR?
Women journalists who worked for Cosmopolita
Who was Ida Tarbell
One of the founders of PR Reporter who worked for Vanderbilts Brought journalism & PR together Made sure people told their stories so there were no rumors
Who was Ivy Lee
One of the founding fathers of PR
brought the idea of PR Council so companies would know their audience & how to serve them
Also created "Torches of Liberty" campaign:
Add campaign for cigarettes
Hired debutantes to walk in the NY easter
parade & smoke "Torches of Liberty."
Claimed this represented the freedom of women being able to smoke
Made smoking popular!
What did Edward Bernays do for PR?
Engineering of Consent
Getting people to think the way you want them to think is?
What is this an example of?:
Arkansas coach caught with women in motorcycle crash. Coach got fired
Death takes cover of 1982 Newsweek magazine
The Tylenol Scare- people put Syonide in Tylenol capsules
Tylenol restored its reputation using PR
What was a famous PR response?
Use of PR and advertising together
What are PRs 4 key functions?
What is PR called in government?
Can gov. do propaganda on us?
In Advertising is the goal to tell truth?
Does advertising have first amendment freedom?
Bernays helped with PR in civil rights movement and made sure there were cameras there to capture civil rights events.
What was PRs involvement with Civil Rights?
Claimed to film "bike hero" but was actually filmed by a Hollywood studio as a Publicity Stunt
What was the PR issue with Kevin from Fort Waynes youtube video?
The "foot print" on the ground, purpose was to direct men how to get to the whore house
What was an example of an early form of advertising?
Unique Selling Proposition
That one thing that sets your product apart from everything else in advertising
World: $500 billion
US: $144 billion
28% of worlds ad money is spent in US
What did the US and the World spend in advertising in 2011?
$400 per person
What was the ad spending per person in the US in 2011?
Where do ad dollars go?
Cheap to make
wealthier people buy it
taken more seriously
Ads are permanent
Newspapers market is older, not reaching many young people
Ads for general audience
What are the channel characteristics of Print (News paper Ads)
long shelf life
long pass around rate
ads are prettier
specialized Ads- Niche Mags/Ads
Cons: takes a long time to get AD in mag
doesnt come out as often as NEwspapers
What are the Channel Characteristics of Magazines?
Aims at specific market niche
Hear ad in car & can react immediately
Makes you think
Sound (jingles stick in your head)
What are the channel characteristics of radio?
makes money in Advertising
Picture & sound
specific niche channels for ads
Its about selling image not information
Cons: Expensive for Ad space
Expensive to make ads
No shelf life
What are the channel characteristics of TV?
sound, video, & text
can taylor Ads to your interest
interent can follow you and your interests
eliminates middle man
you know how many people click on you ad
Cons: Now everyone has internet
you can hide ads
not everyone trusts internet
What are the channel characteristics of Internet?
Catches your eye
gives direct response
easy to miss if not paying attention
What are the channel characteristics of Outdoor Advertising (Out of Home Advertising)
People dressed up standing outside restaurants
word of mouth
What are some other forms of Advertisement
1869 N.W. Ayer & Son
N. Wayland Ayer
designed and sold ads
When was the first AD agency created and who owned it?
(you create ad & do research for free & get payed from commissions)
How are AD agencies payed?
What is the structure of an Ad Agency?
Cost per thousand
What does CPM stand for?
Gov. can limit speech of Advertising
Ex: Flintstones show had Winston Cigarettes, gov. ban Tobacco products in TV shows
1.Postal Service: Regulates direct mail ads
2. Food & Drug Admin: regulates ads about foods, cosmetics, drugs, & health care products
3. Federal Trade Commission: Protects against false ads and unfair business practices
4. Securities & Exchange Commission: Regulates ads of stocks and bonds
5. Federal Communications Commission: Regulates political ads on TV & radio
What are the agencies that regulate Ads and what do they do?
What is to many adds competing for your attention called?
Assess effects of media on individuals, societies and cultures
what is media criticism analysis based on?
well reasoned arguments
professionals find criticism..?
harsh and unrealistic
Critics ﬁnd business bottom-line..?
example of controlled vs uncontrolled gatekeepers
controlled: NY Times-tons of ppl approving
uncontrolled- blogs, youtube, ect
convergence of technologies
merging of computer,
telephone and mass media technologies. Ex. iPhone
convergence of industry
corporate mergers that allow
companies to combine their media technologies:
Ex. Cable buy Internet and telephone divisions
convergence of content
bring together mediated
interpersonal content with tradition mass communication
and computer content
telegraph- samuel morse
group or chain ownership
The acquisition of the same type of business in more than one market area by one company
2 types of Conglomerates
vertical or horizontal intergration
from beginning of product to end
tree choppers-mill-paper factory-packaging
acquires production units for outputs which are alike - either complementary or competitive.
like a monopoly
Private Ownership, Government Control
what was the concern?
children modeling the behavior
ex. sex violence
Laboratory experiment showed what?
romantic and erotic
scenes did not have much effect on young children or adults but had a noticeable effect on teenagers.
result of payne study
harmful to some--low education & weak home
what was the result of war of worlds
Serious effects were minimal; low education, high
based on social backgrounds
american solider study
wanted to put a video out to recruit people for army
what did the study find
everyone has psychological difference therefore one video would not be appropriate
study used controlled groups
participants who are not exposed to the variable under study
television in the lives of our children
Thousands of school children and their
parents were interviewed, surveyed
(through questionnaires and diaries) and
tested on how children used TV and how
that use affected those children.
sometimes harmful sometimes not depending on background
multi step flow
media effects are part of a complex interaction
Uses and gratiﬁcation theory
consumers actively choose and use media to meet their own needs.
ex. watching jimmy fallon cause it makes me happy
Correlation vs. Causation
cancer from smoking? or other facotors
how much do books account for total media industry revenues
Clay tablets in Mesopotamia
Papyrus: Reed paper in Egypt, Greek
what is Parchment
Dried animal skins, very durable
Rome 1st Century AD, Cut and bound
major social revolution of eraly book days?
who created the Moveable type in 1456
17th and 18th Centuries
Enlightenment, Age of
what was invented in mexico city in 1530s
First press in North America
First press in colonial America?
inexpensive early form of paperback,
stories to read for pleasure
method of printing originally based on the principle that oil and water do not mix high quality illustrations at high
1880s set type automatically
early book marketing
Book-of-Month 1926, Literary Guild
Keys to publishing
Market- educated kids
production- fast and cheap
distribution- rail so it was cheap
cost- economies of scale
Copyright of 1891
Books become public domain after the copyright has expired(rule)
category of creative works on which the copyright has expired
of the 5 top publishers how many are us based?
4 categories of books
trade-fiction/nonfiction educational-schools reference-collection of research professional-law school/medicine
5 Players in the Book Industry
authors publishers editors booksellers readers
3 types of editors
Acquisition Editors: Obtains books to be
Developmental Editor: Works directly with
the author during the writing of the book,
Copy Editor: Polishes a manuscript line by
line and prepares it for typesetting
types of readers
Bibliofiles-book lovers; 50 or more a year
Casual Readers: enjoy, read a few books a
Required Readers: read for work or studies
Illiterates: never learned how to read
Aliterates-those who can read but do not
how much do newspapers acct in media revenue
Bostons Publick Occurences
title of the first multi-page newspaper published in the Americas
regarded as the first continuously published newspaper in British North America. It was heavily subsidized by the British government, with a limited circulation
Laws established by colonial America that
made it illegal to criticize government or its
punishment for criticizing the government or its representatives
truth as a defense
telegraph was invented by
what did telagraph lead to?
who what when in beg and tiny details towards end
chained own news companies
1900 10% chain owned; 1940 40% chain; today
80% chain owned
national newspaper circ and figures
1,400 with circulation of 36 million;
3 Stages of Media Development
1. Elite Stage-For richest and best educated
2. Popular Stage-Mass audience takes advantage
3. Specialized Stage-segments for audience member
Edifying Monthly Discussions
American Magazine, Andrew Bradford;
General Magazine, Benjamin Franklin
both fail in 6 months
•literary magazines with small circulation; poetry, etc.
what magazine led to southern living?
what was the golden age of magazines?
1885 to 1905
from 3,500 to 7,000
Important social and political tools
what was so important about cutting mag prices from 35 to 10 cents?
audience rose from 250,000 to 750,000
Cost per thousand (mille) became the standard measure ad cost
•Investigative journalism conducted with the goal of bringing social reform
Keys to Magazine Development
•Universal education-educated readers
•Postal Act of 1879-made it cheaper
•Rural Free Delivery in 1890s-delivery for free
•Paper costs; wood pulp-cheap
•Printing technology: Linotype, rotary press
what magazines did henry Luce found
times, fortune, sports illustrated
who and when founded reader's digest
dewitt and lila wallace
mags were the us medium until..?
types of magazines
how many total print periodicals in us (mags)
how many comsumer mags?
how many trade?
how many public relations
how many mags are major?
of the majors what is the circulation/rev?
all are consumer
•Any magazine that advertises and reports on consumer products and the consumer lifestyle
•Magazines that focus on a particular business and are usually essential reading for people in that business
Public Relations Magazines
•Magazines produced with the objective of making their parent organization look good
ex. bmw magazine cause you just bought one
•periodicals that doctors, lawyers, engineers and other occupational groups rely on for information in their field: Brain Research
•Periodicals that publish research in a variety of scholarly fields; scholarly journals; International Journal of Public Opinion Research
•low-cost, self-published magazines by fans of topic (fanzines)
top mags by rev
3. Better Homes & Garden
top mags by circulation
1. AARP The magazine
2. AARP Bulletin
3. Reader's digest
of the 500-1000 mags launched a year, what % survive
20% to year 2
•: Versions based on different geographic areas
Paid circulation magazines
Readers actually pay subscription fees and newsstand charges
Controlled circulation magazines
: Magazines are sent free to readers who qualify
what % of us adults read 12 issues a month?
Persistence of vision
brain retains images
for a fraction of a second after they leave the ﬁeld of sight
Thomas Edison 1889
Kinetograph: Early motion picture camera
Kinetoscope: Early motion picture viewer
Vitascope First theatre projector
1903 Great Train Robbery
12 minute ﬁlm by
Edwin Porter, editing, story telling, ﬁrst western, ﬁrst chase scene
Motion Picture Patents Company: Company
founded by Edison and other primary patent
holders and ﬁlm producers to control movie
if you dont pay trust the patent fee can you show your movie?
why did hollywood attract movie producers?
weather, costs, escapes patents fees
when did the courts get rid of The Trust?
how much control of movie industry did vertical intergration have in 1920's?
Force independent theaters to
show movies with no stars to get movies with established stars
Force independent theaters to
reserve movies without previewing them (hit
4 Main stars:
Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, Rudolph Valentino
Dark style, pessimistic: Psycho (1960)
what was the golden age for movies?
what percent of the population went to the movies weekly: now vs then?
(90 mil)75% then vs
(20 mil)7.5% now
first color movies?
Gone With The Wind
and The Wizard of Oz, both in 1939
first movie with special effects
King Kong (1933) and The Invisible Man (1933)
one of the most important African-American performers-moved to Europe to pursue career
First black mainstream star, Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1967
Courts force end of star system: 1948 Paramount
ended monopoly; ban blind and block
booking; studios can’t own theaters-TV COMING
in the 1960's how many homes had tv
90% US homes had TV
What was the first movie entirely produced on computers?
us vs worlds film revenues
US ﬁlm industry collects 80% of
world’s ﬁlm revenues, though it produces about 15% of the world’s ﬁlms
who produces the most films in the world?
India; produces about 800 ﬁlms a year
planning phase, including script
development, casting, budgeting, scheduling, set
and costume design, location scouting, set
construction and special effects design
final phase, including film and
sound editing, soundtrack scoring, special effects
integration and technical improvements such as
is the actual shooting phase, very
hectic and expensive
The Production Company big six companies
Paramount, Sony, Warner Bros., Disney, 20th Century Fox, Universal
Finds financing and puts the package
Lead the day-to-
day work of making the film
Creative vision: pre, production and post-production Director’s Cut: Version director delivers to
second unit directors
Movie directors in charge of
shooting the scenes that do not require the stars
Selects shots, sequence; sets pace and rhythm; Ex.
Apocalypse Now: 230 hours down to 2 hours and 35
director of photography:
charge of cameras and works with director for set up of shots
Designs the physical look of the
Also called Script
Supervisor: Makes sure each days shots match
set up and move cameras
opportunity to sell, rent or
license a product to a different type of customer
4 types of marketing windows
Division of box office receipts: 70 studio/30
theater; can negotiate ex. star filled 90/10
Vast majority shown in multiplexes with multiply
screening rooms or megaplexes
with 16 or more screen
legal right that grants to the
owner of the work protection against unauthorized copying
grants the author of a work the
right to make and distribute copies of that work for a specified period
Individual: Life+70 years; For Hire: 95 years
Rivalries in which
companies selling specific types of
recording and playback devices try to put competing formats out of business
what did thomas edison create
recording device; cylinder with grooves cut into it,
a horn and hand crank
gramaphone-flat disc with grooves; first format war
representation of the sound wave is stored
directly onto the recording medium
Sound is broken down and stored
into a numerical coding, 0s and 1s
American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers founded in 1914 to secure royalties for sheet music.
RCA bought Victor Company and
formed RCA Victor, focus on
manufacturing records and players
British Invasion: Beatles
Ed Sullivan 1964
free file-sharing program
1999: Shawn Fanning, Napster
Four major corporations
Warner, EMI, Sony
BMG, Universal; collect 80% of recording
industry revenues each year
Music Industry Revenues (millions)
14,000 mill to 6,000 mil today
Artist and Repertoire:
Specialists in the
music industry who discover and develop the
groups and performers
2 types of royalties
recording artist royalties, and then
songwriter and publisher royalties
The Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) is an American committee formed in 1985 with the goal of increasing parental control over the access of children to music deemed to be violent or sexually suggestive.
week day vs weekend listenership
week day: 3hrs weekend: 5hrs
ad revenues a year-radio
Alexander Graham Bell 1876
1887: Heinrich Hertz :
electric current from one
coil to one across room; radio waves; measure of
company (later GE) wire
lighting in NY
range of frequencies that can be used for transmitting
radio waves with electricity
First wireless voice
Tube to pickup
and amplify radio signals; vacuum tube
turned radio into both business & entertainment
Group of interconnected
stations that share programming and a parent
company that supplies programming to stations
Owned and Operated (O&Os):
owned and operated by the network; usually large
market, NY, LA
local stations that are not
owned by, but have a contractual relationship with
RCAs David Sarnoff form first two national networks
NBC Red and NBC Blue;
how was abc created
NBC Blue sold; Edward Noble,
owner of Lifesavers
Radio Act of 1912
Put radio under government control, no agency
Ships have radio on 24 hours; Titanic
Telecommunications Act of 1996
federal legislation that deregulated the communications media
Reacting to TV
AM to FM Transistor Format Radio
new radio format
Complete news update every 22 minutes.
Time every 3 minutes.
Weather every 5 minutes.
Traffic every 10 minutes.
Sports at 15 minutes before and after every hour
on avg- how many tvs in a US home?
on avg- how many hours is a US tv on?
on avg- how many hours do ppl actually watch tv
• Patents about lines of resolution:
rows of lighted
dots, or pixels, that make up a TV picture image;
pixel: lighted dots that create a TV image
whats gov conclusion to color & resolution
government and industry agree on B&W, 525 lines of resolution, 30 frames per second (1941)
placement of assigned
spots on the electromagnetic spectrum to
individual broadcast stations
what was different about Dumont vs nbc/cbs/ect..
didn’t have afﬁliate structure of the
other’s radio networks: had talent, shows,
management, ads; Dumont became nucleus of
Metromedia TV, later Fox network
tv's Golden Age: 1948-1958
-good dramatic programming
-Quality dramas needed to attract wealthy,
-Most early TV was live
what year was all prime time in color
• Community Antenna TV (CATV)
The ﬁrst cable TV systems, designed to give viewers in hard-to-reach areas satisfactory reception
from their nearest broadcast stations
First FCC rule for cable
network programming on same day as aired on
ﬁrst pay cable service
Time Inc.’s HBO
1970 to 1990: how many watch cable? and today?
1080 or 720 lines
on average 30% from subscriber
fee, 70% from ad revenue
>100 channels; actually
MMDS: Multipoint Microwave Distribution
wireless signals sent out to different destinations; wireless cable, sent from towers or
echnically all are local, line of
sight w/o other system; 50 miles radius
channels by the numbers
1,600 stations, 1,200 commercial, 400 public
3 factors determine size and proﬁtability
Channel: spot on spectrum
Market: 210 markets
Owned and operated by network (broadcast networks)
major markets Ex. NBC: NY, LA, Chicago
carry network programming in return for compensation; Networks get audience size
Networks provide what % of afﬁliate programming
• Independent Stations
Not afﬁliated with network;
quality improve over time; sometimes part of
Like chain. One group cannot
own stations that together reach more than 35% of
the US population
• Program Syndication:
selling programs directly to stations
or cable channels; also online Arrested Development
Syndicated programs that were
shown earlier on one of the TV networks and are now being licensed on a station-to-station basis; generally 100 episodes, strip programming (5 slots a week) Ex. Seinfeld
• Original Syndication:
The station-by-station licensing of
new TV programs that were not earlier shown on a
network: Jeopardy, Oprah; big money
Like network but doesn’t produce programming;
organization made up of public TV stations; large stations
do lot of programming
percentage of ALL homes equipped with TVs that are tuned to a particular station at a
percentage of homes in which the
television is IN USE and tuned to a particular station.
Overnight ratings are most important to networks
while local stations set advertising rates based on
November,February, May, and July.
internet access: us vs world
ﬁrst successful general
online service; complex (1979)
Internet, hardware system
www (worldwide web)
system that simpliﬁes access to ﬁles on Internet
computers; he gave it away
and images within a Web page that allow the user
to move to another site by pointing and clicking a
ﬁrst web browser:
A software program that enables a user to move
around the Internet
• Graphical user interface (GUI):
a set of browser features
such as icons and hot spots that allow users to navigate
Uniform resource locator (URL):
An Internet address that
connects the user to a website on a particular computer
Hypertext transfer protocol (http):
The protocol that
enables computers to recognize links on the WWW
• Hypertext mark-up language
The basic computer
language used to write hypertext transfer protocol
An advanced programming language used for
animated images and advanced sound applications
Web after crash in 2001:
the idea of a second-generation internet that is highly participated-
users to improve it as they use it
who invented telephone
alexander graham bell-1876
Cell technology developed by?
bell labs, wave towers are set up on a grid so that each area of the grid is supplied with radio service
placement of cell towers
– The cell towers were placed at the corners of
hexagonal grids; transmit into three adjacent
ﬁrst truly mobile phone was invented by?
Dr. Martin Cooper in 1973, which cost $4,000
when it became commercially available 10
• Paid ads on websites
pay a ﬂat rate to get on the website
and once established charged per click; issues of spyware: programs that track internet user’s activities and report them to advertisers
The most proﬁtable online advertising
• Search Engines
The selling of goods and services
Making proﬁts on a large number
of items sold in relatively small quantities
Sending fake e-mails to get
victims to reveal sensitive information
Reliability of Information
• Short ﬁlms dealing with current events, shown in
movie theaters prior to the advent of TV
Charles Pathe, Paris 1909
duration and content of rews reels
10 minutes, 5-6 stories of current news, human
radio news 1920
1st radio news broadcast with a
Frank Conrad, Harding election
how long did baltimore agreement last?
lasted less than one year.
how did radio help newspapers?
by whetting the
audience’s appetite for in-depth newspaper
independent journalists who are paid only for
: Events speciﬁcally created for media coverage
Long-form ﬁlmed examination of a social problem or historical subject
who from cbs
started a TV documentary unit
Edward Murrow and Fred Friendly
(T/f) Murrow’s programs became predecessor and model for
TV news magazines such as 60 Minutes
• TV news afraid to criticize Vietnam policy
who resigned as a result of vietnam
: Difference between what a
government says and what the public believes to
Ted Turner adapted the format of all-news radio and launched what?
Cable News Network (CNN) in
why and who was fox news launched
and Roger Ailes as a conservative alternative to what
they felt was a liberal CNN
1980s: Bulletin Board Services (BBS):
Early online news
Online TV news sites were the leaders in what?
audience of electronic news
Men follow news more than women
50% get news from TV
• 25% get news from newspaper and other print
• 25% from online and radio
definition of PR
art or science of establishing and promoting favorable relationship with the public
free flow of all ideas. reasonable beings, greater power on top
who is the grandfather of PR
sam adams, boston tea party, sons of liberty
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
won 7th president by appealing to the commoner through pr tactics
Amos Kendall first press secretory
PT Barnum (of Barnum and Bailey)
Considered master of promotion but was unethical and left his mark on the PR industry forever
Committee on Public Information pursuade people to go to war
ww2 influence (person)
elmer davis office on war of information extremely successful on government public relations-came from radio
Father of Modern PR; persuaded young women to start smoking
wife Doris Fleischman
4-step process to pr
Planning: Objective, Strategy
Implementation: Communication execution
Levels of Communication
range of PR work
Not for profit, Education
1. Writing Skills
2. Research ability
3. Planning Expertise
5. Business/economics competence
6. Expertise in Social Media
Any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion
of ideas, goods or services by an identiﬁed sponsor
where did advertising come from?
Manufacturers such as Andrew Carnegie (steel) and
Henry Ford (automobiles) believed mass production
needed advertising to create mass demand
advertising by the numbers:
Newspapers: 65% content; 75% income
• Magazines: 50% content; 50% income
• Web: actually 40% of revenues from ads; growing, search engine ads
• TV and radio: 25% of broadcast time for each; large
portion of income
ads carried notices of wares, business to
larger and includes artwork, fancy
typefaces and snappy slogans to lure customers
from general stores
act as a liaison between
advertisers and newspapers
when and who was first ad broker
1841, Philadelphia’s Volney
breaks up the advertising
audience into diverse segments in order to reach individuals most likely to purchase a particular
, agencies in the U.S. and
throughout the world have merged into
transnational behemoths and adapted to
indigenous cultures in new markets
Media corporations are doing worldwide business today, but very few countries have press freedom laws like the First Amendment
Advertising begins with who?
how much of clients revenue is spent on advertising
The gross dollar amount that an
advertising agency’s client spent
how many ad agencies in u.s.?
built into the client’s
specialize in creative services
but do not cover aspects such as media buys
Full service agencies
supply all of the
advertising, marketing, and often public relations services the client needs
-represent the client within
the agency and coordinate agency services for the client
-coordinates the process of pitching
accounts, which involves preparing and
presenting new ideas for ads to a prospective
e process of ﬁnding the product’s
speciﬁc customer types and creating appeals that will
be effective with those customers
Studies that test the
effectiveness of ad content or copy
Small groups of potential
consumers observed by a researcher
plans how advertising
budgets will be allocated among various media and arranges for the purchase of media space and
advantages of advertising in magazines
pass-along rate (four to ﬁve extra
people read them, besides the purchaser or
subscriber) and their shelf life (people keep them
for weeks, and sometimes longer).
image promotions for entire industry
Federal Trade Commission
was established in 1914 as a national watchdog of
business and advertising
Food and Drug Administration
regulates ads about foods, drugs, health related
regulates direct mail advertising
Federal Trade Commision
protects against false and unfair business practices
securities and exchange commission
regulates advertising of stock and bonds
who changed the law to- Truth as a defense 1735
first amendment was created when?
5 things the first amendment included
how did Investigative journalists change america
nfluenced passage of laws such
as the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 and the Pure Food
and Drug Act of 1906, which lead to restrictions in what
and how the media could advertise.
Equal Opportunity Rule
andates that if a broadcast
station permits one legally qualified candidate for elective public office to use its facilities, it must afford an equal opportunity for all other qualified candidates for the same office
The Fairness Doctrine (1949-1987)
to provide time for discussion of important public issues
miller vs calif 1973
A new category, indecency was
created for broadcast controls. The FCC considers
material indecent if it is offensive to community
standards for broadcasting
derives from documents written by
the founders of a country or state. The U.S. Constitution prevails, which means that any state or local law that contradicts the First Amendment cannot be legally implemented
collection of laws written by legislative bodies, such as the U.S. Congress, state legislature, county commission and city councils. Almost all criminal law, such as the prohibition against mailing obscene materials, is statutory
made up of the rules and
regulations of governmental agencies such as the FCC,
FTC, and the Federal Election Commission (FEC
made up of judges rulings which
become precedents for future cases
USA PATRIOT Act
This act gives the government expanded rights to gain access to personal and private communications and examine books Americans buy or check out of the library
privacy law protects against the disclosure of embarrassing, sensitive personal information that is not essential to a news story. Most plaintiffs, however, lose private fact cases