Theories of media effect: concern that younger people get influenced by media When: concerns around media effects since that time there was media (primarily morality and rule of the church) 20th century ? concerns of media effects become larger (ex. Democracy? Lippman ? maintenance of social order and rules of experts ? through mass media). Propaganda Growth of films and Radio Expanding consumer culture and advertising Leads to: studies of psyc and sociology. Marketing research ? Lasarzfeld and Merton (interactions of media and audience ? research for media industries) Social Science Research: Media and Audiences: One Question ? Who has the power? Magic Bullet Theory (Hypodermic needle) of Harold Lasswell ? injection of ideas into a passive audience. Direct effect = deliberate planned by those creating and transmitting a message Limitations: Passive audience, no individual differences, Media ALL Powerful Hadley Cantril: Critical of hypodermic needle theory: War of the Worlds radio broadcast Personal characteristics can influence media effects Timing listeners tuned in Religious beliefs can influence media effects Holistic Understanding of Media and Communication: Harold Lasswell: Who says What In which channel To Whom It May Concern: with what effect Communication: three functions in society Surveillance of environment (taking in and understanding environment) Correlation of response (are other people saying the same thing as you) Transmission of culture Entertainment (added by lazarsfeld and merton) Lasarzfeld: Study of media effects on voters Two step flow Media - Opinion Leaders ? public Media is less powerful ? media first goes through opinion leader Limitations: Passive audience = few active opinion leaders Top-bottom flow of info No account of non permanence of opinion leaders Uses and Gratification Model: Blummer and Katz People use media for specific gratifications: to satisfy specific needs Personal identity Personal relationships Surveillance Diversion Audience has power Limitations: focus of theory: individuals Not examining of negative effects ? objectifies things Circularity ? certain needs people have and by consuming certain media vehicles those needs are satisfied (not accurate ? every media product is not fulfilling a need) Minimal effects model: Joseph Klapper Effects of mass communication Media has greatest influence on people without strong views on an issue The model Audiences are active in their selection of media Media reinforces existing opinion, but doesn?t change them Selective exposure and retention Limited explanation of media workings Media, individual and Society Social Learning theory: Albert Bandura ? Bobo Doll experiment Effects of society Learning by imitation Limitations: Experimental setting No account of individual backgrounds and predispositions Cultivation theory: George Gerbner TV acts in ?enculturaltion? ? you cant isolate media from the everyday world Heavy vs. light viewers The more you watch the more distorted you understand the real world ?Mean World? syndrome Limitations: Relationship between tv and audience is too simplified Culture: the way people make meaning, apprehend reality, and integrate experience using symbols from media. Understanding how people make sense of realities. Power in society: how a culture reproduces forms of sexism, racism, classes etc. Critical of social science research: incorporated in everyday life culture
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