An anovulatory cycle is a menstrual cycle during which the ovaries do not release anoocyte. Therefore, ovulation does not take place. However, a woman who does not ovulate at each menstrual cycle is not necessarily going through menopause. Chronic anovulationis a common cause of infertility.
The term anoxia means a total depletion in the level of oxygen, an extreme form of hypoxia or "low oxygen". The terms anoxia and hypoxia are used in various contexts:
Anteversion and retroversion are complementary anatomical terms of location, describing the degree to which an anatomical structure is rotated forwards (towards the front of the body) or backwards (towards the back of the body) respectively, relative to some datum position.
More specifically, neck anteversion is a neck tilted further forward than normal.
A woman's uterus is typically tilted slightly forward or anteverted, but in certain cases it is tilted back and described as being aretroverted uterus.
A misaligned pelvis can be described as being tilted forward, or backwards. The degree of anteversion and retroversion varies between individuals.
The terms also describe the positioning of implants in arthroplasty.
Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as anti-nuclear factor orANF) are autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell nucleus. In normal individuals, the immune system produces antibodies to foreign proteins (antigens) but not to human proteins (autoantigens). In some individuals, antibodies to human antigens are produced.
There are many subtypes of ANAs such as anti-Ro antibodies, anti-La antibodies, anti-Sm antibodies, anti-nRNP antibodies, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, anti-dsDNA antibodies, anti-histone antibodies, antibodies to nuclear pore complexes, anti-centromere antibodies and anti-sp100 antibodies. Each of these antibody subtypes binds to different proteins or protein complexes within the nucleus. They are found in many disorders including autoimmunity, cancer and infection, with different prevalences of antibodies depending on the condition. This allows the use of ANAs in the diagnosis of some autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis,dermatomyositis, autoimmune hepatitis and drug induced lupus.
Antipruritics, also known as anti-itch drugs, are medications that inhibit the itching (Latin: pruritus) that is often associated withsunburns, allergic reactions, eczema, psoriasis, chickenpox, fungal infections, insect bites and stings like those from mosquitoes, fleas, and mites, and contact dermatitis and urticaria caused by plants such as poison ivy (urushiol-induced contact dermatitis) or stinging nettle.
One type of antispasmodics is used for smooth muscle contraction, especially in tubular organs of the gastrointestinal tract. The effect is to prevent spasms of the stomach, intestine or urinary bladder. Both dicyclomine and hyoscyamine are antispasmodic due to theiranticholinergic action. Both of these drugs have general side effects and can worsen gastroesophageal reflux disease.
A cough medicine (or linctus, when in syrup form) is a medicinal drug used in an attempt to treat coughing and related conditions. For dry coughs, treatment with cough suppressants (antitussives) may be attempted to suppress the body's urge to cough. However, in productive coughs (coughs that produce phlegm), treatment is instead attempted withexpectorants (typically guaifenesin, in most commercial medications) in an attempt to loosenmucus from the respiratory tract.
Aphagia is the inability or refusal to swallow. The word is derived from the Greek root a meaning "not" or "without" and phagiameaning "to eat." It is related to dysphagia, which is difficulty swallowing, and odynophagia, painful swallowing.
Aphonia is the inability to produce voice. It is considered more severe than dysphonia. A primary cause of aphonia is bilateral disruption of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which supplies nearly all the muscles in the larynx. Damage to the nerve may be the result of surgery (e.g., thyroidectomy) or a tumor.
Aphonia means "no sound." In other words, a person with this disorder has lost his/her voice.
An arteriogram is an imaging test that uses x-rays and a special dye to see inside the arteries. It can be used to see arteries in the heart, brain, kidney, and many other parts of the body.
Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries,veins and the heart chambers. This is traditionally done by injecting a radio-opaque contrast agent into the blood vessel and imaging using X-ray based techniques such as fluoroscopy.
Arthrocentesis (Greek: arthros, a joint + kentēsis, puncture) is the clinical procedure of using a syringe to collect synovial fluid from a joint capsule. It is also known as joint aspiration. Arthrocentesis is used in the diagnosis of gout, arthritis, and synovial infections.
Arthrodesis, also known as artificial ankylosis or syndesis, is the artificial induction of jointossification between two bones via surgery. This is done to relieve intractable pain in a joint which cannot be managed by pain medication, splints, or other normally-indicated treatments. The typical causes of such pain are fractures which disrupt the joint, andarthritis. It is most commonly performed on joints in the spine, hand, ankle, and foot. Historically, knee and hip arthrodeses were also performed as pain relieving procedures, however with the great successes achieved in hip and knee arthroplasty, arthrodesis of these large joints has fallen out of favour as a primary procedure, and now are only used as procedures of last-resort in some failed arthroplasties.
It can be done in several ways:
An arthrogram is a series of images, often X-rays, of a joint after injection of a contrast medium. The injection is normally done under a local anesthetic.The radiologist performs the study utilizing fluoroscopy or ultrasound to guide the placement of the needle into the joint and then injects an appropriate quantity of contrast.
Arthrography is medical imaging to evaluate conditions of joints. There are several methods to do this.
Conventional arthrography is the x-ray examination of a joint that uses a special form of x-ray called fluoroscopy and an injection of contrast material containing iodine directly into the joint. Alternate methods of arthrography examinations use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT).
Arthroplasty (literally "surgical repair of joint") is an orthopedic surgery where the articular surface of a musculoskeletal joint is replaced, remodeled, or realigned by osteotomy or some other procedure. It is an elective procedure that is done to relieve pain and restore function to the joint after damage by arthritis or some other type of trauma.
An Arthrotomy is a process involving creating an opening in a joint.
Atelectasis (from Greek: ἀτελής, "incomplete" + ἔκτασις, "extension") is defined as the collapse or closure of the lung resulting in reduced or absent gas exchange . It may affect part or all of one lung. It is a condition where the alveoli are deflated, as distinct from pulmonary consolidation.
An audiogram is a graph that shows the audible threshold for standardized frequencies as measured by an audiometer. The Y axis represents intensity measured in decibels and the X axis represents frequency measured in Hertz. Most audiograms cover a limited range of frequencies 100 Hz to 8000 Hz (8 kHz) because this range includes the fundamental frequency of sounds in speech. The threshold of hearing is plotted relative to a standardised curve that represents 'normal' hearing, in dB(HL). They are not the same asequal-loudness contours, which are a set of curves representing equal loudness at different levels, as well as at the threshold of hearing, in absolute terms measured in dB SPL (sound pressure level).
Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man not having any measurable level of spermin his semen. It is associated with very low levels of fertility or even sterility, but many forms are amenable to medical treatment. In humans, azoospermia affects about 1% of the male population and may be seen in up to 20% of male infertility situations.
Bacilli refers to a taxonomic class of bacteria. It includes two orders, Bacillales andLactobacillales, which contain several well-known pathogens like Bacillus anthracis (the cause of anthrax).
Balanitis (/bæləˈnaɪtɪs/; from Greek: βάλανος balanos "acorn") is inflammation of theglans penis. When the foreskin is also affected, it is termed balanoposthitis.
Balanitis on boys still in diapers must be distinguished from the normal redness seen in boys caused by ammoniacal dermatitis.
Basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), a skin cancer, is the most common cancer. It rarely metastasizes or kills. However, because it can cause significant destruction and disfigurement by invading surrounding tissues, it is still consideredmalignant.
Statistically, in the United States approximately 3 out of 10 Caucasians may develop a basal-cell cancer within their lifetime. In 80 percent of all cases, basal-cell cancers are found on the head and neck. There appears to be an increase in the incidence of basal-cell cancer of the trunk (torso) in recent years.
Beta blockers (β-blockers, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, beta antagonists, beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists, or beta adrenergic receptor antagonists) are a class ofdrugs.
Beta blockers target the beta receptor. Beta receptors are found on cells of the heart muscles, smooth muscles, airways, arteries, kidneys, and other tissues that are part of the sympathetic nervous system and lead to stress responses, especially when they are stimulated by epinephrine(adrenaline). Beta blockers interfere with the binding to the receptor of epinephrine and other stress hormones, and weaken the effects of stress hormones.
Bifocals are eyeglasses with two distinct optical powers. Bifocals are most commonly prescribed to people with presbyopia who also require a correction for myopia, hyperopia, and/or astigmatism.
A bladder polyp is a growth that forms in the lining of a person’s bladder. These growths can be benign, or not cancerous, or they can be malignant, which means they are cancerous. Doctors often recommend that patients have bladder polyps removed once they are discovered. Many people aren’t aware that they have bladder polyps, however, as they are often present without causing any symptoms.
Blepharoplasty is surgical modification of the eyelid. Excess tissue such as skin and fatare removed or repositioned, and surrounding muscles and tendons may be reinforced. It can be both a functional and cosmetic surgery.
The liver produces urea in the urea cycle as a waste product of the digestion of protein. Normal human adult blood should contain between 7 to 21 mg of urea nitrogen per 100 ml(7–21 mg/dL) of blood. Individual laboratories may have different reference ranges, and this is because the procedure may vary.[dead link]
In medicine, a bolus (from Latin bolus, ball) is the administration of a medication, drug or other compound that is given to raise its concentration in blood to an effective level. The administration can be given intravenously, by intramuscular, intrathecal or subcutaneousinjection.
Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or bone densitometry, is an enhanced form of x-ray technology that is used to measure bone loss. DXA is today's established standard for measuring bone mineraldensity (BMD).
An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging.
DXA is most often performed on the lower spine and hips. In children and some adults, the whole body is sometimes scanned. Peripheral devices that use x-ray or ultrasound are sometimes used to screen for low bone mass. In some communities, a CT scan with special software can also be used to diagnose or monitor low bone mass (QCT). This is accurate but less commonly used than DXA scanning.
The Bowman's capsule (or capsula glomeruli, glomerular capsule) is a cup-like sac at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine. A glomerulus is enclosed in the sac. Fluids from blood in the glomerulus are collected in the Bowman's capsule (i.e.,glomerular filtrate) and further processed along the nephron to form urine. This process is known as ultrafiltration. The Bowman's capsule is named after Sir William Bowman, who identified it in 1842.
A breech birth is the birth of a baby from a breech presentation, in which the baby exits the pelvis with the buttocks or feet first as opposed to the normal head-first presentation. In breech presentation, fetal heart sounds are heard just above the umblicus.
Bronchiectasis is a disease state defined by localized, irreversible dilation of part of thebronchial tree caused by destruction of the muscle and elastic tissue. It is classified as anobstructive lung disease, along with emphysema, bronchitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis. Involved bronchi are dilated, inflamed, and easily collapsible, resulting in airflow obstructionand impaired clearance of secretions. Bronchiectasis is associated with a wide range of disorders, but it usually results from bacterial infections, such as infections caused by theStaphylococcus or Klebsiella species, or Bordetella pertussis.
Bronchography is an x-ray of the bronchus involving the use of contrast. Bronchography is rarely performed, as it has been made obsolete with improvements in computed tomography and bronchoscopy.
A bulbourethral gland, also called a Cowper's gland for anatomist William Cowper, is one of two small exocrine glands present in the reproductive system of male mammals (including humans). They are homologous to Bartholin's glands in females.
Trepanning, also known as trephination, trephining or making a burr hole, is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into thehuman skull, exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases. It may also refer to any "burr" hole created through other body surfaces, including nail beds. It is often used to relieve pressure beneath a surface. A trephine is an instrument used for cutting out a round piece of skull bone.
A bursa is a small sac filled with synovial fluid that cushions adjacent structures and reduces friction. Bursectomy refers to the removal of one of these structures, usually due to chronic inflammation (bursitis) or infection.
A calcium channel blocker (CCB) is a chemical that disrupts the movement of calcium (Ca2+) through calcium channels.
CCB drugs devised to target neurons are used as antiepileptics. However, the most widespread clinical usage of calcium channel blockers is to decrease blood pressure in patients with hypertension. CCBs are particularly efficacious in treating elderly patients. Calcium channel blockers are also frequently used to alter heart rate, to prevent cerebral vasospasm, and to reduce chest pain caused by angina pectoris. Despite their effectiveness, CCB's often have a high mortality rate over extended periods of use, and have been known to have multiple side effects. Potential major risks however were mainly found to be associated with short-acting CCB's.
Cardiac catheterization (heart cath) is the insertion of a catheter into a chamber or vesselof the heart. This is done for both diagnostic and interventional purposes. Subsets of this technique are mainly coronary catheterization, involving the catheterization of the coronary arteries, and catheterization of cardiac chambers and valves.
Cardiac computed tomography (to-MOG-rah-fee), or cardiac CT, is a painless test that uses an x-ray machine to take clear, detailed pictures of the heart. Doctors use this test to look for heart problems.
During a cardiac CT scan, an x-ray machine will move around your body in a circle. The machine will take a picture of each part of your heart. A computer will put the pictures together to make a three-dimensional (3D) picture of the whole heart.
Sometimes an iodine-based dye (contrast dye) is injected into one of your veins during the scan. The contrast dye highlights your coronary (heart) arteries on the x-ray pictures. This type of CT scan is called a coronary CT angiography (an-je-OG-rah-fee), or CTA.
Cardiac tamponade, also known as pericardial tamponade, is an acute type of pericardial effusion in which fluid accumulates in the pericardium (the sac in which the heart is enclosed).
Cardiac tamponade is pressure on the heart muscle which occurs when the pericardial space fills up with fluid faster than the pericardial sac can stretch. If the amount of fluid increases slowly (such as in hypothyroidism) the pericardial sac can expand to contain a liter or more of fluid prior to tamponade occurring. If the fluid occurs rapidly (as may occur after trauma or myocardial rupture) as little as 100 ml can cause tamponade.
Cardioplegic solution is the means by which the ischemic myocardium is protected from cell death. This is achieved by reducing myocardial metabolism through a reduction in cardiac work load and by the use of hypothermia.
Cardioplegia is intentional and temporary cessation of cardiac activity, primarily for cardiac surgery.
The word cardioplegia means cardio-the heart and plegia- paralysis. Technically this means arresting or stopping the heart so that surgical procedures can be done in a still and bloodless field. Most commonly however, the word cardioplegia refers to the solution used to bring about asystole of the heart, or heart paralysis.
The four main goals of hypothermic cardioplegia are:
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a technique that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery, maintaining the circulation of blood and the oxygen content of the body. The CPB pump itself is often referred to as a heart–lung machine or "the pump". Cardiopulmonary bypass pumps are operated by perfusionists. CPB is a form of extracorporeal circulation.
Cardioversion is a medical procedure by which an abnormally fast heart rate (tachycardia) or cardiac arrhythmia is converted to a normal rhythm, using electricity or drugs. Synchronized electrical cardioversion uses a therapeutic dose of electric current to the heart, at a specific moment in thecardiac cycle. Pharmacologic cardioversion, also called chemical cardioversion, uses antiarrhythmia medication instead of an electrical shock.
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure used to prevent stroke, by correcting stenosis (narrowing) in the common carotid artery. Endarterectomy is the removal of material on the inside (end-) of an artery.
Carpus is anatomical assembly connecting the hand to forearm. In human anatomy, the main role of the carpus is to facilitate effective positioning of the hand and powerful use of the extensors and flexors of the forearm, but the mobility of individual carpal bones increase the freedom of movements at the wrist.
In tetrapods, the carpus is the sole cluster of bones in the wrist between the radius andulna and the metacarpus. The bones of the carpus do not belong to individual fingers (or toes in quadrupeds), whereas those of the metacarpus do. The corresponding part of thefoot is the tarsus. The carpal bones allow the wrist to move and rotate vertically.
A cephalic presentation is a situation at childbirth where the fetus is in a longitudinal lieand the head enters the pelvis first; the most common form of cephalic presentation is the vertex presentation where the occiput is the leading part (the part that first enters the birth canal). All other presentations are abnormal (malpresentations) which are either more difficult to deliver or not deliverable by natural means.
Cephalometry is the measurement of the human head by imaging, traditionally from x-ray films.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of non-progressive, non-contagiousmotor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, chiefly in the various areas of body movement.
Cerebral refers to the cerebrum, which is the affected area of the brain (although the disorder may involve connections between the cortex and other parts of the brain such as the cerebellum), and palsy refers to disorder of movement. Furthermore, paralytic disorders are not cerebral palsy – the condition of quadriplegia, therefore, should not be confused with spasticquadriplegia, nor tardive dyskinesia with dyskinetic cerebral palsy, nor diplegia with spastic diplegia, and so on.
Chancroid (also known as soft chancre and ulcus molle) is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. Chancroid is known to spread from one individual to another solely through sexual contact.
Cheilitis is a medical condition involving inflammation of the lip.
It is associated with many conditions, including megaloblastic anemia from vitamin B12deficiency, iron deficiency anemia (which in severe cases can lead to Plummer-Vinson syndrome) and oral candidiasis. It can also be a symptom of allergies, such as allergy to Balsam of Peru. Cheilitis can also be caused by taking the (retinoid) drug Isotretinoin(brand name Roaccutane) (BNF84).
Cheiloplasty or lip reduction (from Greek: χείλος kheilos – "lip") is the technical term for surgery of the lip. It includes lip reduction, the process of surgically reducing the size of the lip or lips in order to reduce the appearance of abnormally large or protruding lips, as well as the process of forming an artificial tip or part of the lips by using a piece of healthy tissue from some neighboring part. The procedure can also be performed to enhance the upper and lower lip for those who wish to make their lips permanently larger.External links 
Chlamydia infection (from the Greek, χλαμύδα meaning "cloak") is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in humans caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The term Chlamydia infection can also refer to infection caused by any species belonging to the bacterial family Chlamydiaceae. C. trachomatis is found only in humans. Chlamydia is a major infectious cause of human genital and eye disease. Chlamydia infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide; it is estimated that about 1 million individuals in the United States are infected with chlamydia.
Cholangiography is the imaging of the bile duct (also known as the biliary tree) by x-rays. There are at least two kinds of cholangiography:
In both cases fluorescent fluids are used to create contrasts that make the diagnosis possible. Cholangiography has largely replaced the previously used method of intravenous cholangiography (IVC).
Cholecystectomy (pron.: /ˌkɒləsɪsˈtɛktəmi/; plural: cholecystectomies) is the surgical removal of the gallbladder. It is a common treatment of symptomatic gallstones and other gallbladder conditions. Surgical options include the standard procedure, called laparoscopiccholecystectomy, and an older more invasive procedure, called open cholecystectomy.
A cholecystostomy is a procedure where a stoma is created in the gallbladder, which can facilitate placement of a tube for drainage. It is sometimes used in cases of cholecystitiswhere the patient is ill, and there is a need to delay or defer cholecystectomy.
Choledochojejunostomy is an anastomosis of the common bile duct to the jejunum, performed to relieve symptoms of biliary obstruction and restore continuity to the biliary tract. Biliary obstruction can be caused by pathology above, at, or below the level of the cystic duct; it can lead to jaundice and pruritus, as well as predispose patients to infections such as cholangitis.
Choledochojejunostomy refers specifically to anastomosis at the level of the common bile duct. As such, it is the procedure of choice for obstruction distal to the cystic duct-common hepatic duct junction. Depending on the cause of the obstruction, choledochojejunostomy can be curative or palliative.
Choledocholithiasis is the presence of at least one gallstone in the common bile duct. The stone may be made up of bile pigments or calcium and cholesterol salts.
A gallstone is a crystalline concretion formed within the gallbladder by accretion of bilecomponents. These calculi are formed in the gallbladder but may distally pass into other parts of the biliary tract such as the cystic duct, common bile duct, pancreatic duct, or theampulla of Vater. Rarely, in cases of severe inflammation, gallstones may erode through the gallbladder into adherent bowel potentially causing an obstruction termed gallstone ileus.
In medicine, cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to theduodenum. The two basic distinctions are an obstructive type of cholestasis where there is a mechanical blockage in the duct system such as can occur from a gallstone ormalignancy, and metabolic types of cholestasis which are disturbances in bile formation that can occur because of genetic defects or acquired as a side effect of many medications.
Chondritis is inflammation of cartilage.
It takes several forms, osteochondritis, costochondritis among them. Costochondritis is notable for feeling like a heart attack.
A chondroma is a benign cartilaginous tumor, which is encapsulated with a lobular growing pattern.
Tumor cells (chondrocytes, cartilaginous cells) resemble normal cells and produce the cartilaginous matrix (amorphous, basophilic material).
Characteristic features of this tumor include the vascular axes within the tumor, which make the distinction with normal hyaline cartilage.
Based upon location, a chondroma can be described as an enchondroma or ecchondroma.
Treatment - best left alone - if it causes fractures (enchondroma) or is unsightly it should be removed by curettage and the defect filled with bone graft. 
Chondroplasty refers to surgery of the cartilage, the most common being corrective surgery of the cartilage of the knee.
Surgery known as thyroid chondroplasty (or trachea shave) is used to reduce the visibility of the Adam's Apple in transsexual women.
Chondrosarcoma is a cancer composed of cells derived from transformed cells that produce cartilage. Chondrosarcoma is a member of a category of tumors of bone and soft tissue known as sarcomas. About 30% of skeletal system cancers are chondrosarcomas.While the disease can affect people (or animals) of any age, unlike most other forms of skeletal system cancer, it is more common among older people than among children, and more often affects the axial skeleton than the appendicular skeleton.
Chyme (from Greek "χυμός" - khymos, "juice") is the semifluid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into theduodenum.
Also known as chymus, it is the liquid substance found in the stomach before passing through the pyloric valve and entering theduodenum. It results from the mechanical and chemical breakdown of a bolus and consists of partially digested food, water, hydrochloric acid, and various digestive enzymes. Chyme slowly passes through the pyloric sphincter and into the duodenum, where the extraction ofnutrients begins. Depending on the quantity and contents of the meal, the stomach will digest the food into chyme in anywhere between 40 minutes to a few hours.
In current practice, climacteric is most often a synonym for female menopause. In Princeton University's online Wordnet database, climacteric is listed as: 
The term is used for both genders by The International Menopause Society, which defines itself as "The society for the study of all aspects of the climacteric in men and women."
Coagulopathy (also called clotting disorder and bleeding disorder) is a condition in which the blood’s ability to clot is impaired. This condition can cause prolonged or excessive bleeding, which may occur spontaneously or following an injury or medical and dental procedures.
Coccygectomy is a surgical procedure during which the coccyx, is removed. It can be performed for many reasons for instance in patients with coccyx pain (tailbone pain), however it is typically reserved for patients with malignant cancer or for patients whose tailbone pain has failed to respond to nonsurgical treatment (such as medications by mouth, use of seat cushions, and medications given by local injections done under fluoroscopic guidance).
Coitus interruptus, also known as the rejected sexual intercourse, withdrawal or pull-out method, is a method of birth-control in which a man, during intercourse withdraws his penis from a woman's vagina prior to orgasm (and ejaculation). The man then directs his ejaculate (semen) away from his partner's vagina in an effort to avoid insemination.
Colectomy consists of the surgical resection of any extent of the large intestine (colon).
Baby colic (also known as infantile colic) is a condition in which an otherwise healthy baby cries or displays symptoms of distress (cramping, moaning, etc.) frequently and for extended periods, without any discernible reason. The condition typically appears within the first month of life and often disappears rather suddenly, before the baby is three to four months old, but can last up to one year. The causes of colic are not settled science. One study found that children diagnosed with migraines were nearly three times as likely to have experienced colic as babies, suggesting colic may be an early response to migraine headaches. Another study concluded that babies who are not breastfed are almost twice as likely to have colic. Epidemiology suggests that chocolate, brassica, onions, and cow's milk are among the foods that a lactating mother may need to avoid.
In medicine, colitis (pl. colitides) refers to an inflammation of the colon and is often used to describe an inflammation of the large intestine (colon, caecum and rectum).
Colitides may be acute and self-limited or chronic, i.e. persistent, and broadly fits into the category of digestive diseases.
In a medical context, the label colitis (without qualification) is used if:
Colostrum (also known colloquially as beestings, bisnings or first milk) is a form ofmilk produced by the mammary glands of mammals (including humans) in late pregnancy. Most species will generate colostrum just prior to giving birth. Colostrum contains antibodies to protect the newborn against disease, as well as being lower in fat and higher in protein than ordinary milk.
Colporrhaphy (also vaginal wall repair, anterior and/or posterior colporrhaphy,anterior and/or posterior vaginal wall repair, or simply A/P repair or A&P repair) is asurgical procedure in humans that repairs a defect in the wall of the vagina. It is the surgical intervention for both cystocele (protrusion of the urinary bladder into the vagina) andrectocele (protrusion of the rectum into the vagina).
The repair may be to either or both of the anterior (front) or posterior (rear) vaginal walls, thus the origin of some of its alternative names.
Colposcopy (Ancient Greek: kolpos "hollow, womb, vagina" + skopos "look at") is a medical diagnostic procedure to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva. Many premalignant lesions and malignant lesions in these areas have discernible characteristics which can be detected through the examination. It is done using a colposcope, which provides an enlarged view of the areas, allowing the colposcopist to visually distinguish normal from abnormal appearing tissue and take directed biopsies for further pathological examination. The main goal of colposcopy is to prevent cervical cancer by detecting precancerous lesions early and treating them. The procedure was developed in 1925 by the German physician Hans Hinselmann, with help from Helmut Wirths.
A specialized colposcope equipped with a camera is used in examining and collecting evidence for victims of rape and sexual assault.
Why the fuss about compound fractures? Because these injuries are open to the outside world, there is a very significant risk of developing an infection around the fracture. If an infection develops, there can be problems with bone healing. Therefore, compound fractures are generally treated with surgery to clean the site of injury and stabilize the fracture.
Condyloma acuminatum refers to an epidermal manifestation attributed to the epidermotropic human papillomavirus (HPV), as in the images below. More than 100 types of double-stranded HPV papovavirus have been isolated to date. Many of these have been related directly to an increased neoplastic risk in men and women.
Corneal transplantation, also known as corneal grafting, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by donated corneal tissue (the graft) in its entirety (penetrating keratoplasty) or in part (lamellar keratoplasty). The graft is taken from a recently deceased individual with no known diseases or other factors that may affect the viability of the donated tissue or the health of the recipient.
Coryza is a word describing the symptoms of a "cold". It describes the inflammation of the mucous membranes lining the nasal cavitywhich usually gives rise to the symptoms of nasal congestion and loss of smell, among other symptoms. Coryza may not always have aninfectious or allergenic etiology and can be due to something as innocuous as a cold wind, spicy food or tender points in the muscles of the neck such as the sternocleidomastoid. It is also a symptom of narcotic withdrawal. Coryza is classically used in association with the "four Cs" of measles infection: cough, conjunctivitis, Koplik's spots, and coryza.
The creatinine clearance test compares the level of creatinine in urine with the creatinine level in the blood. (Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, which is an important part of muscle.) The test helps provide information on kidney function.
Cretinism is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth due to untreatedcongenital deficiency of thyroid hormones (congenital hypothyroidism) usually due to maternal hypothyroidism.
Croup (or laryngotracheobronchitis) is a respiratory condition that is usually triggered by an acute viral infection of the upper airway. The infection leads to swelling inside the throat, which interferes with normal breathing and produces the classical symptoms of a "barking"cough, stridor, and hoarseness. It may produce mild, moderate, or severe symptoms, which often worsen at night. It is often treated with a single dose of oral steroids; occasionallyepinephrine is used in more severe cases. Hospitalization is rarely required.
Cushing's syndrome describes the signs and symptoms associated with prolonged exposure to inappropriately high levels of the hormone cortisol. This can be caused by taking glucocorticoid drugs, or diseases that result in excess cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), or CRH levels.
Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families that causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs, digestive tract, and other areas of the body. It is one of the most common chronic lung diseases in children and young adults. It is a life-threatening disorder.
Cytology (from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow"; and -λογία, -logia) means "the study of cells". Cytology is that branch of life science, which deals with the study of cells in terms of structure, function and chemistry. Based on usage it can refer to:
Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is a surgical procedure to restore the flow of tears into the nose from the lacrimal sac when the nasolacrimal duct does not function.
Dactylitis or sausage digit is inflammation of an entire digit (a finger or toe), and can be painful.
The word dactyl comes from the Greek word "daktylos" meaning "finger". In its medical term, it refers to both the fingers and the toes.
A dermatomycosis is a skin disease caused by a fungus.
Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. Initial detachment may be localized, but without rapid treatment the entire retina may detach, leading to vision loss and blindness. It is a medical emergency.
The retina is a thin layer of light sensitive tissue on the back wall of the eye. The optical system of the eye focuses light on the retina much like light is focused on the film or sensor in a camera. The retina translates that focused image into neural impulses and sends them to the brain via the optic nerve. Occasionally, posterior vitreous detachment, injury or trauma to the eye or head may cause a small tear in the retina. The tear allows vitreous fluid to seep through it under the retina, and peel it away like a bubble in wallpaper.
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, with reduction of fluid intake having no effect on the concentration of the urine. There are several different types of DI, each with a different cause. The most common type in humans is central DI, caused by a deficiency of argininevasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The second common type of DI is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which is caused by an insensitivity of the kidneys to ADH. It can also be an iatrogenic artifact of drug use.
In the natural sciences, the term diathermy [di´ah-ther″me] means "electrically induced heat" the use of high-frequency electromagnetic currents as a form of physical or occupational therapy and in surgical procedures. The term diathermy is derived from the Greek words dia and therma, and literally means “heating through.” adj., adj diather´mal, diather´mic.
The diencephalon ("interbrain") is the region of the vertebrate neural tube which gives rise to posterior forebrain structures. In development, the forebrain develops from theprosencephalon, the most anterior vesicle of the neural tube which later forms both the diencephalon and the telencephalon. In adults, the Diencephalon appears at the upper end of the brain stem, situated between the cerebrum and the brain stem. It is made up of four distinct components: the thalamus, the subthalamus, the hypothalamus and theepithalamus.
Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a type of fluoroscopy technique used in interventional radiology to clearly visualize blood vessels in a bony or dense soft tissue environment. Images are produced using contrast medium by subtracting a 'pre-contrast image' or the mask from later images, once the contrast medium has been introduced into a structure. Hence the term 'digital subtraction angiography'.
Dilation (or dilatation) and curettage (D&C) refers to the dilation (widening/opening) of thecervix and surgical removal of part of the lining of the uterus and/or contents of the uterus by scraping and scooping (curettage). It is a therapeutic gynecological procedure as well as a rarely used method of first trimester abortion.
D&C normally refers to a procedure involving a curette, also called sharp curettage. However, some sources use the term D&C to refer more generally to any procedure that involves the processes of dilation and removal of uterine contents, which includes the more common suction curettage procedures of manual and electric vacuum aspiration.
Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, or diagonally (i.e. both vertically and horizontally) in relation to each other. It is usually the result of impaired function of the extraocular muscles (EOMs), where both eyes are still functional but they cannot converge to target the desired object. Problems with EOMs may be due to mechanical problems, disorders of the neuromuscular junction, disorders of the cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) that stimulate the muscles, and occasionally disorders involving the supranuclear oculomotor pathways or ingestion of toxins.
Diplopia is often one of the first signs of a systemic disease, particularly to a muscular or neurological process, and it may disrupt a person’s balance, movement, and/or reading abilities.
Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is a chronic skin condition of sores with inflammation and scarring favoring the face, ears, and scalp and at times on other body areas. These lesions develop as a red, inflamed patch with a scaling and crusty appearance. The center areas may appear lighter in color with a rim darker than the normal skin.
Discoid lupus erythematosus can be divided into localized, generalized and childhood discoid lupus erythematosus.
Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is a category of otherwise unrelated drugs defined by their use in rheumatoid arthritis to slow down disease progression. The term is often used in contrast to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (which refers to agents that treat the inflammation but not the underlying cause) and steroids (which blunt the immune response but are insufficient to slow down the progression of the disease).
The term "antirheumatic" can be used in similar contexts, but without making a claim about an effect on the course.
A discectomy (also called open discectomy) is the surgical removal of herniated discmaterial that presses on a nerve root or the spinal cord. The procedure involves removing the central portion of an intervertebral disc, the nucleus pulposus, which causes pain by stressing the spinal cord or radiating nerves. The traditional open discectomy, or Love's technique, was published by Ross and Love in 1971. Advances in options have produced effective alternatives to traditional discectomy procedures (i.e. Microdiscectomy, Endoscopic Discectomy, and Laser Discectomy). In conjunction with the traditional discectomy, a laminotomy is often involved to permit access to the intervertebral disc. In this procedure, a small piece of bone (the lamina) is removed from the affected vertebra, allowing the surgeon to better see and access the area of disc herniation.
In the U.S., it has been estimated that the Medicare system spends over $300 million annually on lumbar discectomies.
Dissociative disorders (DD) are conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity or perception. People with dissociative disorders usedissociation, a defense mechanism, pathologically and involuntarily. Dissociative disorders are thought to primarily be caused by psychological trauma.
The five dissociative disorders listed in the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-IV are as follows:
Both dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue usually emerge in adulthood and rarely occur after the age of 50. TheICD-10 classifies conversion disorder as a dissociative disorder while the DSM-IV classifies it as a somatoform disorder.
Diverticulosis, also known as "diverticular disease", is the condition of having diverticulain the colon, which are outpocketings of the colonic mucosa and submucosa through weaknesses of muscle layers in the colon wall. These are more common in the sigmoid colon, which is a common place for increased pressure. This is uncommon before the age of 40, and increases in incidence after that age.
Dopamine (abbreviated as DA), is a monoamine neurotransmitter and hormone, which has a number of important physiological roles in the bodies of animals. Dopamine is a simple organic chemical in the catecholamine family and may also be classified as asubstituted phenethylamine. Its name derives from its chemical structure, which consists of an amine group (NH2) linked to a catechol structure, called dihydroxyphenethylamine, the decarboxylated form of dihydroxyphenylalanine (acronym DOPA).
Doppler echocardiography is a procedure which uses ultrasound technology which can examine the heart or blood vessels. An echocardiogram uses high frequency sound waves to create an image of the heart while the use of Doppler technology allows determination the speed and direction of blood flow by utilizing the Doppler effect.
Duodenitis is inflammation of the duodenum. It may persist acutely or chronically.
The duodenum /ˌduːəˈdinəm/ is the first section of the small intestine in most highervertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear, and the terms anterior intestine or proximal intestine may be used instead of duodenum. In mammals the duodenum may be the principal site for iron absorption.
Dupuytren's contracture (also known as morbus Dupuytren, Dupuytren's disease orpalmar fibromatosis) is a fixed flexion contracture of the hand where the fingers bend towards the palm and cannot be fully extended (straightened). It is an inherited proliferative connective tissue disorder which involves the palmar fascia of the hand. It is named afterBaron Guillaume Dupuytren, the surgeon who described an operation to correct the affliction in the Lancet in 1831.
Dwarfism (pron.: /ˈdwɔrfɪzəm/) occurs when an individual person or animal is short in stature resulting from a medical condition caused by abnormal (slow or delayed) growth. In humans, dwarfism is sometimes defined as an adult height of less than 147 cm (4 feet 10 inches).
Dwarfism can be caused by about 200 distinct medical conditions, such that the symptoms and characteristics of individuals with dwarfism vary greatly. Disproportionatedwarfism is characterized by one or more body parts being relatively large or small in comparison to those of an average-sized adult, with growth variations in specific areas being apparent. In cases of proportionate dwarfism, the body appears normally proportioned, but is unusually small.
Dyscrasia is a concept from ancient Greek medicine with the word "dyskrasia", meaning bad mixture.
The concept of dyscrasia was developed by the Greek physician Galen (130–199 AD), who elaborated a model of health and disease as a structure of elements, qualities, humors, organs, and temperaments. Health was understood in this perspective to be a condition of harmony or balance among these basic components, called eucrasia. Disease was interpreted as the disproportion of bodily fluids orfour humours: phlegm, blood, and yellow and black bile. The imbalance was called dyscrasia.
Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is an inflammatory disorder of theintestine, especially of the colon, that results in severe diarrhea containing blood and mucusin the feces with fever, abdominal pain, and rectal tenesmus (a feeling of incomplete defecation), caused by any kind of infection.
Dysmenorrhea (or dysmenorrhoea) is a gynecological medical condition of pain duringmenstruation that interferes with daily activities, as defined by ACOG and others. Still, dysmenorrhea is often defined simply as menstrual pain, or at least menstrual pain that is excessive. This article uses the dysmenorrhea definition of menstrual pain that interferes with daily activities, and uses the term menstrual pain as any pain during menstruation whether it is normal or abnormal.
Eclampsia (Greek, "shining forth") is an acute and life-threatening complication ofpregnancy, characterized by the appearance of tonic-clonic seizures, usually in a patient who has developed pre-eclampsia. (Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are collectively calledHypertensive disorder of pregnancy and toxemia of pregnancy.)
Eclampsia includes seizures and coma that happen during pregnancy but are not due to preexisting or organic brain disorders.
Elephantiasis /ˌɛlɨfənˈtaɪ.əsɨs/ el-i-fən-ty-ə-sis is a disease that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs and male genitals. In some cases the disease can cause certain body parts, such as the scrotum, to swell to the size of a basketball. It is caused by filariasis or podoconiosis.
Embolectomy is the emergency surgical removal of emboli which are blocking blood circulation. It usually involves removal of thrombi (blood clots), and is then referred to asthrombectomy. Embolectomy is an emergency procedure often as the last resort because permanent occlusion of a significant blood flow to an organ leads to necrosis. Other involved therapeutic options are anticoagulation and thrombolysis.
An empyema (from Greek: ἐμπύημα) is a collection of pus within a naturally existing anatomical cavity, such as the lung pleura. It must be differentiated from an abscess, which is a collection of pus in a newly formed cavity.
Encephalography may refer to:
(Surg.) The act or art of dissecting the brain.
1. Intestinal stasis; a retardation or arrest of the passage of the intestinal contents.
Enuresis (from the Ancient Greek ἐνούρησις / enoúrēsis ()), refers to a repeated inability to control urination. Use of the term is usually limited to describing individuals old enough to be expected to exercise such control.
History: Found evidence of mention in Egyptian medical texts as early as 1550 B.C.
In medicine (gastroenterology), esophageal varices (oroesophageal varices) are extremely dilated sub-mucosal veins in the lower third  of the esophagus. They are most often a consequence of portal hypertension, commonly due to cirrhosis; patients with esophageal varices have a strong tendency to develop bleeding.
Esophageal varices are diagnosed with endoscopy.
In the human respiratory system, eupnea or eupnoea (Greek eupnoia; from eu, well + pnoia, breath) is normal, good, unlabored ventilation, sometimes known as quiet breathing or resting heart rate. In eupnea, expiration employs only the elastic recoil of the lungs.
Euthyroid is the state of having normal thyroid gland function.
Examples of a nonfunctioning thyroid gland may be hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or thyroiditis.
Excision means "removal by cutting".
An Exocrine gland is distinguished by the fact that itexcretes its essential product by way of a duct to some environment external to itself, be it either inside the body or on a surface of the body.
Examples of exocrine glands include the sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, pancreas andliver.
• Lesions of fibrous origin include those tumors of fibrogenic and fibrohistiocytic origin.
• Tumors of fibrogenic origin are those that produce collagen and demonstrate absence of bone and cartilage formation
• Desmoplastic fibroma and fibrosarcoma make up the fibrogenic tumor category.
• Desmoplastic fibroma is a rare benign tumor often associated with recurrence.
A fimbria (plural fimbriae) is a Latin word that literally means "fringe." It is commonly used in science and medicine, with its meaning depending on the field of study or the context. In particular, it can refer to:
Fundus (Latin for "bottom") is an anatomical term referring to the portion of an organ opposite from its opening. Examples include:
Gamma-knife radiosurgery is a type of radiation therapy used to treat tumors and other abnormalities in the brain.
In gamma-knife radiosurgery, specialized equipment focuses as many as close to 200 tiny beams of radiation on a tumor or other target. Although each beam has very little effect on the brain tissue it passes through, a strong dose of radiation is delivered to the site where all the beams meet.
The precision of gamma-knife radiosurgery results in minimal damage to healthy tissues surrounding the target and, in some cases, a lower risk of side effects compared with other types of radiation therapy. Also, gamma-knife radiosurgery is often a safer option than is traditional brain surgery.
Gastroduodenostomy is a surgical procedure where the doctor creates a new connection between the stomach and the duodenum. This procedure may be performed in cases of stomach cancer or in the case of a malfunctioning pyloric valve.
Gastrostomy refers to a surgical opening into the stomach. Creation of an artificial external opening into the stomach for nutritional support or gastrointestinal compression. Typically this would include an incision in the patient's epigastrium as part of a formal operation. It can be performed through surgical approach, percutaneous approach by interventional radiology, or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG).
Herpes genitalis (or genital herpes) refers to a genital infection by Herpes simplex virus.
Following the classification HSV into two distinct categories of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in the 1960s, it was established that "HSV-2 was below the waist, HSV-1 was above the waist". Although genital herpes was previously caused primarily by HSV-2, genital HSV-1 infections are increasing and now cause up to 80% of infections. HSV is believed to be asymptomatic in the majority of cases, thus aiding contagion and hindering containment. When symptomatic, the typical manifestation of a primary HSV-1 or HSV-2 genital infection is clusters of genital sores consisting of inflamed papules and vesicles on the outer surface of the genitals, resembling cold sores.
Gerontology (from the Greek γέρων, geron, "old man" and -λογία, -logy, "study of"; coined by Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov in 1903) is the study of the social, psychological and biological aspects of aging. It is distinguished from geriatrics, which is the branch of medicine that studies the diseases of older adults. Gerontologists include researchers and practitioners in the fields of biology, medicine, nursing, dentistry, social work, physical and occupational therapy, psychology, psychiatry, sociology, economics, political science, architecture, pharmacy, public health, housing and anthropology.
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside female viviparous animals, including mammals, as well as some non-mammalian species. Mammals during pregnancy can have one or more gestations at the same time (multiple gestations).
Gigantism, also known as giantism (from Greek γίγας gigas, "giant", plural γίγαντεςgigantes), is a condition characterized by excessive growth and height significantly aboveaverage. In humans, this condition is caused by over-production of growth hormone in childhood resulting in persons between 7 feet (84 inches) (2.13 m) and 9 feet (108 inches) (2.74 m) in height.
The gingiva (sing. and plur.: gingiva), or gums, consist of the mucosal tissue that lies over the mandible and maxilla inside the mouth.
Gingivectomy means excision of the gingiva. By removing the pocket wall, gingivectomy provides visibility and accessibility for complete calculus removal and thorough smoothing of the roots,creating a favorable environment for gingival healing and restoration of a physiologic gingival contour.
Gingivitis ("inflammation of the gum tissue") is a non-destructive periodontal disease.The most common form of gingivitis, and the most common form of periodontal diseaseoverall, is in response to bacterial biofilms (also called plaque) adherent to tooth surfaces, termed plaque-induced gingivitis. In the absence of treatment, gingivitis may progress toperiodontitis, which is a destructive form of periodontal disease.
In male human anatomy, the glans penis (or simply glans, /ɡlænz/) is the sensitive bulbous structure at the distal end of the penis. The glans is anatomically homologous to the clitoral glans of the human female. Typically, the glans is completely or partially covered by the foreskin, except in men who have been circumcised, though the foreskin can generally be retracted over and past the glans.
The Glasgow Coma Scale or GCS is a neurological scale that aims to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment. A patient is assessed against the criteria of the scale, and the resulting points give a patient score between 3 (indicating deep unconsciousness) and either 14 (original scale) or 15 (the more widely used modified or revised scale).
Glaucoma is an eye disease in which the optic nerve is damaged in a characteristic pattern. This can permanently damage vision in the affected eye(s) and lead to blindness if left untreated. It is normally associated with increased fluid pressure in the eye (aqueous humour). The term "ocular hypertension" is used for people with consistently raisedintraocular pressure (IOP) without any associated optic nerve damage. Conversely, the term 'normal tension' or 'low tension' glaucoma is used for those with optic nerve damage and associated visual field loss, but normal or low IOP.
Glial cells, sometimes called neuroglia or simply glia (Greek γλία, γλοία "glue"; pronounced in English as either /ˈɡliːə/ or /ˈɡlaɪə/), are non-neuronal cells that maintainhomeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the brain, and for neurons in other parts of the nervous system such as in the autonomic nervous system.
A glioma is a type of tumor that starts in the brain or spine. It is called a glioma because it arises from glial cells. The most common site of gliomas is the brain. Gliomas make up ~30% of all brain and central nervous system tumors and 80% of all malignant brain tumors.
The globins are a family of globular proteins, which are thought to share a common ancestor. These proteins all incorporate the globin fold, a series of eight alpha helical segments. Two prominent members of this family include myoglobin and hemoglobin, which both bind the heme (also haem) prosthetic group. Both of these proteins are reversible oxygen binders.
The globulins are a family of globular proteins that have higher molecular weights and water solubility values than the albumins. Some globulins are produced in the liver, while others are made by the immune system. Globulins, albumin, and fibrinogen are the major blood proteins. The normal concentration of globulins in the blood is about 2.6-4.6 g/dL.
Glomerular filtration is the first step in urine formation. You see, in order to clean out the blood, you have to have a way of accessing it. And what we clean out is the plasma (not the cells). So, in glomerular filtration, a lot of the blood plasma spills out into the glomerular capsule.
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in renal physiology. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney. Creatinine clearance rate (CCr or CrCl) is the volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine per unit time and is a useful measure for approximating the GFR. Creatinine clearance exceeds GFR due to creatinine secretion, which can be blocked by cimetidine. In alternative fashion, overestimation by older serum creatinine methods resulted in an underestimation of creatinine clearance, which provided a less biased estimate of GFR. Both GFR and CCr may be accurately calculated by comparative measurements of substances in the blood and urine, or estimated by formulas using just a blood test result (eGFR and eCCr).
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in renal physiology. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney. Creatinine clearance rate (CCr or CrCl) is the volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine per unit time and is a useful measure for approximating the GFR. Creatinine clearance exceeds GFR due to creatinine secretion, which can be blocked by cimetidine. In alternative fashion, overestimation by older serum creatinine methods resulted in an underestimation of creatinine clearance, which provided a less biased estimate of GFR. Both GFR and CCr may be accurately calculated by comparative measurements of substances in the blood and urine, or estimated by formulas using just a blood test result (eGFR and eCCr).
Glomerulopathy is a set of diseases affecting the glomeruli of the nephron.
Such diseases can include processes that are inflammatory or noninflammatory. Because the term glomerulitis exists for inflammatory conditions, glomerulopathy sometimes carries a noninflammatory implication.
In the kidney, a tubular structure called the nephron filters blood to form urine. At the beginning of the nephron, the glomerulus /ɡlɒˈmɛrələs/ is a network (tuft) of capillariesthat performs the first step of filtering blood.
The glomerulus is surrounded by Bowman's capsule. The blood is filtered through the capillaries of the glomerulus into the Bowman's capsule. The Bowman's capsule empties the filtrate into a tubule that is also part of the nephron.
A glossectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the tongue. It is performed in order to curtail malignant growth such as oral cancer. Often only a portion of the tongue needs to be removed, in which case the procedure is called a hemiglossectomy.
Glossitis is inflammation of the tongue. It causes the tongue to swell and change color. Finger-like projections on the surface of the tongue (papillae) may be lost, causing the tongue to appear smooth.
Glossitis usually responds well to treatment if the cause of inflammation is removed. The disorder may be painless, or it may cause tongue and mouth discomfort. In some cases, glossitis may result in severe tongue swelling that blocks the airway, a medical emergencythat needs immediate attention.
The glottis is defined as the combination of the vocal folds (vocal cords) and the space in between the folds (the rima glottidis).
Glucagon, a peptide hormone secreted by the pancreas, raises blood glucose levels. Its effect is opposite that of insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels.The pancreas releases glucagon when blood sugar (glucose) levels fall too low. Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream. High blood glucose levels stimulate the release of insulin. Insulin allows glucose to be taken up and used by insulin-dependent tissues. Thus, glucagon and insulin are part of a feedback system that keeps blood glucose levels at a stable level. Glucagon belongs to a family of several other related hormones.
Healthy lifestyle choices — including diet, exercise and weight control — provide the foundation for managing type 2 diabetes. However, you may need medications to achieve target blood sugar (glucose) levels. Sometimes a single medication is effective. In other cases, a combination of medications works better.
The list of medications for type 2 diabetes is long and potentially confusing. Learning about these drugs — how they're taken, what they do and what side effects they may cause — will help you discuss treatment options with your doctor.Diabetes treatment: Lowering blood sugar
Several classes of type 2 diabetes medicines exist. Each works in different ways to lower blood sugar. A drug may work by:
Each class of medicine has one or more drugs. Some of these drugs are taken orally, while others must be injected. And some type 2 diabetes pills contain a combination of two classes of drugs.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is themetabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+. Thefree energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy compounds ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).
Glycated hemoglobin or glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also HbA1c) is a form ofhemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the average plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time. It is formed in a non-enzymatic glycation pathway by hemoglobin's exposure to plasma glucose. Normal levels of glucose produce a normal amount of glycated hemoglobin. As the average amount of plasma glucose increases, the fraction of glycated hemoglobin increases in a predictable way. This serves as a marker for average blood glucose levels over the previous months prior to the measurement.
In diabetes mellitus, higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin, indicating poorer control of blood glucose levels, have been associated with cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and retinopathy. Monitoring HbA1c in type 1 diabetic patients may improve outcomes.
A goitre or goiter (Latin gutteria, struma), is a swelling of the thyroid gland, which can lead to a swelling of the neck or larynx (voice box). Goitre is a term that refers to an enlargement of the thyroid (thyromegaly) and can be associated with a thyroid gland that is functioning properly or not.
Worldwide, over 90.54% cases of goitre are caused by iodine deficiency.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococci (plural), or gonococcus (singular), is a species of Gram-negative coffee bean-shaped diplococci bacteria responsible for thesexually transmitted infection gonorrhea.
N. gonorrhoea was first described by Albert Neisser in 1879.
Gout (also known as podagra when it involves the big toe) is a medical condition usually characterized by recurrent attacks of acute inflammatory arthritis—a red, tender, hot,swollen joint. The metatarsal-phalangeal joint at the base of the big toe is the most commonly affected (approximately 50% of cases). However, it may also present as tophi,kidney stones, or urate nephropathy. It is caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the blood. The uric acid crystallizes, and the crystals deposit in joints, tendons, and surroundingtissues.
A greenstick fracture is a fracture in a young, soft bone in which the bone bends and partially breaks. This is owing in large part to the thick fiborous periosteum of immature bone. A person's bones become harder (calcified) and more brittle with age and the periosteum becomes thinner and less restrictive. Greenstick fractures usually occur most often during infancy and childhood when bones are soft. The name is by analogy with green (i.e., fresh) wood which similarly breaks on the outside when bent. It was discovered by British-American orthopedist, John Insall, and Polish-American orthopedist, Michael Slupecki.
Halitosis or bad breath occurs when noticeably unpleasant odors are exhaled in breathing. Halitosis is estimated to be the third most frequent reason for seeking dental aid, followingtooth decay and periodontal disease.
A hematoma or haematoma, is a localized collection ofblood outside the blood vessels, usually in liquid form within the tissue. An ecchymosis, commonly called abruise, is a hematoma of the skin larger than 10mm.Internal bleeding is generally considered to be a spreading of blood within the abdomen or skull, not within muscle.
It is not to be confused with hemangioma which is an abnormal build up of blood vessels in the skin or internal organs.
Hemorrhoidectomy is surgery to remove hemorrhoids. You will be given general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia so that you will not feel pain.
Incisions are made in the tissue around the hemorrhoid. The swollen vein inside the hemorrhoid is tied off to prevent bleeding, and the hemorrhoid is removed. The surgical area may be sewn closed or left open. Medicated gauze covers the wound.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
The liver plays a central role in transforming and clearing chemicals and is susceptible to the toxicity from these agents. Certain medicinal agents, when taken in overdoses and sometimes even when introduced withintherapeutic ranges, may injure the organ. Other chemical agents, such as those used in laboratories and industries, natural chemicals (e.g., microcystins) and herbal remedies can also induce hepatotoxicity. Chemicals that cause liver injury are called hepatotoxins.
Herpes genitalis (or genital herpes) refers to a genitalinfection by Herpes simplex virus.
Following the classification HSV into two distinct categories of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in the 1960s, it was established that "HSV-2 was below the waist, HSV-1 was above the waist". Although genital herpes was previously caused primarily by HSV-2, genital HSV-1 infections are increasing and now cause up to 80% of infections. HSV is believed to be asymptomatic in the majority of cases, thus aiding contagion and hindering containment.
Hidradenitis is any disease in which the histologic abnormality is primarily an inflammatory infiltrate around the eccrine glands.:780 This group includes neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis and recurrent palmoplantar hidradenitis.:780
It can also be defined more generally as an inflammation of sweat glands.
Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic cutaneous condition characterized by scarring of the apocrine sweat glands.:710
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins, which, in order of sizes, largest to smallest, arechylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, and HDL, which enable lipids (fats), like cholesterol and triglycerides, to be transported within the water around cells, including the bloodstream.
Because of higher costs to actually measure HDL and LDL protein particles, the correct issues, blood tests for HDL-C level, i.e. the amount of cholesterol associated with ApoA-1/HDL particles, are commonly performed. In healthy individuals, about thirty percent of blood cholesterol, along with other fats, is carried by HDL. This is often contrasted with the amount of cholesterol estimated to be carried within low-density lipoprotein particles, LDL, and called LDL-C. HDL particles remove fats, including cholesterol, from cells, including within artery wall atheroma and transport it back to the liver for excretion or re-utilization, the reason why the cholesterol carried within HDL particles (HDL-C) is sometimes called "good cholesterol" (despite the fact that it is exactly the same as the cholesterol in LDL particles). Those with higher levels of HDL-C tend to have fewer problems with cardiovascular diseases, while those with low HDL-C cholesterol levels (especially less than 40 mg/dL or about 1 mmol/L) have increased rates for heart disease. Higher HDL levels are correlated with better cardiovascular health. Further increasing one's HDL has been found to improve cardiovascular health. Additionally, those few individuals producing an abnormal, apparently more efficient, HDL ApoA1 protein variant called ApoA-1 Milano, have low measured HDL-C levels yet very low rates of cardiovascular events even with high blood cholesterol values.
Above and behind the cardiac impression is a triangular depression named the hilum, where the structures which form the root of the lung enter and leave the viscus. These include the pulmonary artery, superiormost on the left lung, the superior and inferiorpulmonary veins, lymphatic vessels and the bronchus, with bronchial veins and bronchial arteries surrounding it. The pulmonary ligament droops down from the hilum of the lung and terminates in a free, or falciform, edge.
The rib cage is separated from the lung by a two layered membranous coating, called apleura. The hilum represents the point where the parietal pleura (covering the rib cage) and the visceral pleura (covering the lung) connect. The hilum is where the connection between the mediastinum and the pleural cavities meet.
Hirsutism is the excessive hairiness on women in those parts of the body whereterminal hair does not normally occur or is minimal - for example, a beard or chest hair. It refers to a male pattern of body hair (androgenic hair) and it is therefore primarily ofcosmetic and psychological concern. Hirsutism is a medical sign rather than a disease and may be a sign of a more serious medical condition, especially if it develops well afterpuberty. The amount and location of the hair is measured by a Ferriman-Gallwey score.
Histocompatibility is the property of having the same, or mostly the same, alleles of a set of genes called the major histocompatibility complex. These genes are expressed in most tissues as antigens, to which the immune system makes antibodies. The immune system at first makes antibodies to all sorts of antigens, including those it has never been exposed to, but stops making them to antigens present in the body. If the body is exposed to foreign antigens, as by getting a tissue graft, it attacks the foreign material unless it is histocompatible.
Histology (compound of the Greek words: ἱστός "tissue", and -λογία -logia) is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals. It is commonly performed by examining cells and tissues by sectioning and staining, followed by examination under a light microscope or electron microscope. Histological studies may be conducted via tissue culture, where live cells can be isolated and maintained in a proper environment outside the body for various research projects. The ability to visualize or differentially identify microscopic structures is frequently enhanced through the use of histological stains. Histology is an essential tool of biology and medicine.
Holistic health is a concept in medical practice upholding that all aspects of people's needs including psychological, physical and social should be taken into account and seen as a whole. As defined above, the holistic view is widely accepted in medicine. A different definition, claiming that disease is a result of physical, emotional, spiritual, social and/or environmental imbalance, is used in alternative medicine.
In medicine, a Holter monitor (often simply "Holter" or occasionally ambulatory electrocardiography device) is a portable device for continuously monitoring variouselectrical activity of the cardiovascular system for at least 24 hours (often for two weeks at a time). The Holter's most common use is for monitoring heart activity (electrocardiography or ECG), but it can also be used for monitoring brain activity (electroencephalography or EEG) or arterial pressure. Its extended recording period is sometimes useful for observing occasional cardiac arrhythmias or epileptic events which would be difficult to identify in a shorter period of time. For patients having more transient symptoms, a cardiac event monitor which can be worn for a month or more can be used.
Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμοιος, "hómoios", "similar", and στάσις, stásis, "standing still") is the property of a system that regulates its internal environment and tends to maintain a stable, relatively constant condition of properties such as temperature or pH. It can be either an open or closed system. In simple terms, it is a process in which the body's internal environment is kept stable. It was defined by Claude Bernard and later by Walter Bradford Cannon in 1926, 1929 and 1932.
Typically used to refer to a living organism, the concept of homeostasis was preceded by that of milieu intérieur, defined by Claude Bernard and published in 1865. Multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustment and regulation mechanisms make homeostasis possible.
Homeostasis needs to be distinguished from a simple dynamic equilibriums, which are not regulated, and steady states, which may be stable but sensitive to perturbations.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (slowly replicating retrovirus) that causesacquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infectedimmune cells.
HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms including: apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells, direct viral killing of infected cells, and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections.
The humeroradial joint is the joint between the head of the radius and the capitulum of the humerus, is a limited ball-and-socket joint, hinge type of synovial joint.
The bony surfaces would of themselves constitute an enarthrosis and allow movement in all directions, were it not for the annular ligament, by which the head of the radius is bound to the radial notch of the ulna, and which prevents any separation of the two bones laterally.
The humerus (pron.: /ˈhjuːmərəs/; ME from Latin humerus, umerus upper arm, shoulder; cf. Gothic ams shoulder, Greek ōmos. Plural: humeri) is a long bone in the arm orforelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.
Anatomically, in modern humans, it connects the scapula and the lower arm (consisting of the radius and ulna), and consists of three sections. The upper extremity consists of a rounded head, a narrow neck, and two short processes (tubercles, sometimes called tuberosities.) Its body is cylindrical in its upper portion, and more prismatic below. Thelower extremity consists of 2 epicondyles, 2 processes (trochlea & capitulum), and 3 fossae (radial fossa, coronoid fossa, and olecranon fossa). As well as its true anatomical neck, the constriction below the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus is referred to as its surgical neck due to its tendency to commonly get fractured, thus often becoming the focus of surgeons.
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and psychiatric problems. It typically becomes noticeable in mid-adult life. HD is the most common genetic cause of abnormal involuntary writhing movements called chorea, which is why the disease used to be calledHuntington's chorea.
A hydrocele (Br English: hydrocoele) denotes a pathological accumulation of serous fluid in a body cavity. It can also be noted as a minor malformation of newborns due to high levels of lead in the mother's blood during pregnancy.
Hydronephrosis — literally "water inside the kidney" — refers to distension and dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces, usually caused by obstruction of the free flow of urine from thekidney. Untreated, it leads to progressive atrophy of the kidney. In cases ofhydroureteronephrosis, there is distention of both the ureter and the renal pelvis and calices.
Hydrophobia or hydrophobe may refer to:
Hydrothorax is a condition that results from serous fluid accumulating in the pleural cavity. This specific condition can be related to cirrhosis with ascites in which ascitic fluid leaks into the pleural cavity. Hepatic hydrothorax is often difficult to manage in end-stage liver failure and often fails to respond to therapy.
Hyperalgesia (/ˌhaɪpərælˈdʒiziə/ or /-siə/; 'hyper' from Greek ὑπέρ (huper, “over”), '-algesia' from Greek algos, ἄλγος (pain)) is an increased sensitivity to pain, which may be caused by damage to nociceptors or peripheral nerves. Temporary increased sensitivity to pain also occurs as part of sickness behavior, the evolved response to infection.
Hyperalimentation refers to a state where quantities of food consumed are greater than appropriate. It includes overeating, as well as other routes of administration such as in parenteral nutrition.
The term can also be used to describe ingestion to compensate for past deficiencies. In this context, it can refer to parenteral nutrition, though this has been described as incorrect.
It is a frequent iatrogenic cause of normal anion gap acidosis, a subset of metabolic acidosis.
Hyperalimentation can also cause an osmotic diuresis due to an increased load of urea from protein catabolism. Frequently, it is also associated with opportunistic infections by Candida albicans.See also 
Hypercapnia or hypercapnea (from the Greek hyper = "above" or "too much" and kapnos= "smoke"), also known as hypercarbia, is a condition where there is too much carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood. Carbon dioxide is a gaseous product of the body's metabolismand is normally expelled through the lungs.
Hypercapnia normally triggers a reflex which increases breathing and access to oxygen, such as arousal and turning the head during sleep. A failure of this reflex can be fatal, as insudden infant death syndrome.
Hyperchromicity is the increase of absorbance (optical density) of a material. The most famous example is the hyperchromicity of DNA that occurs when the DNA duplex is denatured. The UV absorption is increased when the two single DNA strands are being separated, either by heat or by addition of denaturant or by increasing the pH level. The opposite, a decrease of absorbance is called hypochromicity.
Heat denaturation of DNA, also called melting, causes the double helix structure to unwind to form single stranded DNA. When DNA in solution is heated above its melting temperature (usually more than 80 °C), the double-stranded DNA unwinds to form single-stranded DNA. The bases become unstacked and can thus absorb more light. In their native state, the bases of DNA absorb light in the 260-nm wavelength region. When the bases become unstacked, the wavelength of maximum absorbance does not change, but the amount absorbed increases by 37%. A double strand DNA dissociating to single strands produces a sharp cooperative transition.
The adrenal glands are two small but very important glands, situated one above each kidney, which produce a range of hormones, or 'chemical messengers'.
Underactivity of the adrenal glands is called hypoadrenalism.
Many of the symptoms of hypoadrenalism are due to a deficiency of the steroid hormone cortisol, which is a potentially fatal deficiency if left uncorrected.
Hypochromia means that the red blood cells have less color than normal when examined under a microscope. This usually occurs when there is not enough of the pigment that carries oxygen (hemoglobin) in the red blood cells.
A hypodermic needle
A hypodermic needle (from Greek ὑπο- (under-), and δέρμα (skin)) is a hollow needle commonly used with a syringe to inject substances into the body or extract fluids from it. They may also be used to take liquid samples from the body, for example taking blood from a veinin venipuncture. Large bore hypodermic intervention is especially useful in catastrophic blood loss or shock.
Hypoglycemia (also spelled hypoglycaemia or hypoglycæmia, not to be confused withhyperglycemia) is an abnormally diminished content of glucose in the blood. The term literally means "low sugar blood" (Gr. ὑπογλυκαιμία, from hypo-, glykys, haima). It can produce a variety of symptoms and effects but the principal problems arise from an inadequate supply of glucose to the brain, resulting in impairment of function (neuroglycopenia). Effects can range from mild dysphoria to more serious issues such asseizures, unconsciousness, and (rarely) permanent brain damage or death.
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Hypophysectomy is the surgical removal of the hypophysis (pituitary gland). It is most commonly performed to treat tumors, especially craniopharyngioma tumors.  Sometimes it is used to treat Cushing's syndrome due to pituitary adenoma.  It is also applied inneurosciences (in experiments with lab animals) to understand the functioning of hypophysis.
Hypopituitarism is the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormonesnormally produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain. If there is decreased secretion of most pituitary hormones, the term panhypopituitarism (pan meaning "all") is used.
The signs and symptoms of hypopituitarism vary, depending on which hormones are undersecreted and on the underlying cause of the abnormality. The diagnosis of hypopituitarism is made by blood tests, but often specific scans and other investigations are needed to find the underlying cause, such as tumors of the pituitary, and the ideal treatment. Most hormones controlled by the secretions of the pituitary can be replaced by tablets or injections. Hypopituitarism is a rare disease, but may be significantly underdiagnosed in people with previous traumatic brain injury. The first description of the condition was made in 1914 by the German physician Dr. Morris Simmonds.
Hypopnea (sometimes spelled hypopnœa) is a medical term for a disorder which involves episodes of overly shallow breathing or an abnormally low respiratory rate. Hypopnea is less severe than apnea (which is a more complete loss of airflow). It may likewise result in a decreased amount of air movement into the lungs and can cause oxygen levels in the blood to drop. It more commonly is due to partial obstruction of the upper airway.
The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑπό = under and θάλαμος = room, chamber) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to theendocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus, just above the brain stem. In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it forms the ventral part of the diencephalon. All vertebratebrains contain a hypothalamus. In humans, it is roughly the size of an almond.
Hypothermia (from Greek υποθερμία) is a condition in which core temperature drops below the required temperature for normal metabolism and body functions which is defined as 35.0 °C (95.0 °F). Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of 36.5–37.5 °C (98–100 °F) through biologic homeostasis or thermoregulation. If exposed to cold and the internal mechanisms are unable to replenish the heat that is being lost, a drop in core temperature occurs. As body temperature decreases, characteristic symptoms occur such as shivering and mental confusion.