excision of tissue for diagnostic purposes (such as cancer) or to study the anatomy or physiology of tissue; biopsies of healthy tissue are often done in research. a biopsy can be done on ANY tissue in the body.
damage or trauma to tissue that is characterized by warmth of the skin, redness of the area, pain/itching, swelling, and loss of function.
Inflammation indicates the immune system has been activated.
tending or threatening to harm or spread;
malignancy is the noun form of this term
-trauma or disease to any tissue, internally or externally.
(ulcers, wounds, lacerations, sprains strains and fractures.)
-obvious evidence of an illness that a person can see visually or can measure objectively
-a change in the body that denotes illness; this is not easily seen or measured
-health professional has to take the patient's word for it
staff of Asclepius
a symbol used by medical fields
-single staff with a single snake around it
-thought to be symbolic of a legendary Greek physician
-symbol sometimes used by physicians
-it is a staff with two snakes wrapped around it and with wings
cutane/o, dermat/o, derm/o
urinary system or urine
-ac, -al, -ic, -ical
removal, excision, resection
produced by or in
-ion, -ation, -sion
-process or condition
study (process of)
tumor, mass, fluid collection
instrument for visual examination
process of cutting
condition or process
no, not, without
outside, out, away
back or behind
Activities of Daily Living
twice a day
h or hr
symptom and signs
signs and symptoms
three times a day
y/o or yr
-a career and department where x-rays are taken.
term=process of recording x-rays or radioactivity
-someone who takes x-rays and other diagnostic images
(can only record/take the image)
(2-4 year program, graduating with associates degree or bachelors)
-a branch of medicine that studies radioactivity, x-rays, and diagnostic images
-a medical doctor who has completed medical school. he or she views the images and is entitled to make a diagnosis based upon the image
(CAN MAKE DIAGNOSIS)
-radiation being looked at through tissues and bones
-images that show the structure of an organ or lesion by changing the density of an organ compared to those around it
(dye is introduced which makes it easier to see)
-----dye being used is called contrast medium)
What are two most used contrast media used
-an example of a contrast x-ray
-iodinated contrast is injected into the vessel (artery or vein) and then a radiogram is taken to find blockages or abnormalities
computed tomography (CT)
-ct scan is a type of x-ray technique using computers that gathers images of the body's anatomical structures in the transverse, or cross sectional planes
-then uses computers to develop images of structures in the other planes of the body
(may help find abnormal growths)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
-MRI (not an xray)
-Instead of radiation, uses magnetic fields to help create an image.
MRI radiographic test is similar to a CT in that it shows anatomical structures and growths.
*****shows tissue in MORE detail though and ALL 3 planes can be seen)
-uses radioactive elements (such as iodine) to show functioning of an organ or legion rather than detailed structure
-as it travels through bloodstream it is absorbed by tissue
-absorption of element by an organ shows up on image helping pinpoint the functioning organ or lesion
Positron emissions tomography scan (PET)
-common used Tracer study. shows image of structure AND can also provide information regarding the activity of the tissues
-radioactive chemical is combined with glucose (sugar) and is introduced into the body.
can help diagnose stroke, epilepsy, and other neurological disorders like lung disorders and cancer)
often used with CT in diagnosing conditions
-(US or U/S)
-uses sound waves to help show structure and functioning (movement)
-can be used to look at fetuses, show structure and functioning of heart or brain, breast examinations and for treatment of soft tissue injuries
-used to guide catheters and needles
-type of treatment used in cancers
-a seed or radioactive capsule is placed near or within a tumor. the radioactivity from the seed kills the cells around it thus killing the tumor
-the amount of time it takes the potency of a substance to decrease by half.
for instance, a substance has 100 units of radioactivity and its half life is one hour. in one hour its potency will decrease to 50
absorption of a substance by cells.
in a unit, the cells uptake radioactive elements
-x-ray machine is pointed at the front of the body, and the x-ray beam is shot from the front of body, through, and travels out the back
-means the x-ray beam travels from back of body out of front
-means the machine is being aimed at the side of the body (left of right) and the x-ray beam comes out the opposite side of the body
-x-ray beam is AP or PA, but the body is roated at an angle
transverse (cross sectional or axial) plane
(arms and head vs lower half)
-superior vs inferior)
-divides the body into right or left sides.
-plane that divides the body into two symmetrical halves.
frontal (coronal plane)
divides body into front (anterior) and back(posterior)
frontal: reproductive system, face, major part of the foot and abdoment
posterior: one's backside, the shoulder blades, and the calves
-luminous or "light"
-fluoroscopy: type of x-ray using a fluorescent screen that glows when exposed to x-ray beams
(organ can be viewed in motion)
-means "radioactivity" or "x-ray"
-to cut or slice
-with a -y form this means process of cutting
(3rd syllable is stressed)
-result of a test
the machine or instrument used to complete a test
-process of recording
-action of doing a test
(which means x-rays can go through dark areas of an x ray
-are the light areas on x-rays caused by obscure x-rays and block beams
-x-rays of cervical spine (neck bones)
7 cervical bones called:
(bones in the spine that support the rib cage
sacrum and coccyx
sacrum: S1, S2-S5
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