lack of central authority, kings gave up authority to local lords. Exchange services for land. Things run at local level. Confusing.
Piece of land given to a person from king to help fight. Not always a good deal.
Generic name for person who owns the land and gives it away for "favors." Hereditary
Person who receives the land. (Confusing, loyalty problem) Hereditary. 2 obligations to Lord 1-Relief -gift something valuable to Lord 2- Aid- Must pay ransom for Lord, gift to daughter, provide hospitality.
Dividing Fief's into plantations, large farm. Lord, steward, or balliff in manor house.
People who live on manor, 90% of population, poor, non-free people. Not slaves, must work, have some rights. Taxes too high, ppl swear fealty to rich for protection, work for them for life. Exploited.
work obligation. 1000s CE, population goes up, farming system working well.
Got stronger as gvt got weaker. Independent. Centralized authority. At its strongest. Completely separate - OWN $, land, bldgs, legal system, unified language - Latin. Power to excommunicate (damned). Conflict between Pope and King of Holy Roman Empire.
Major statement by church. Ceremony when bishop is made bishop. Not for king's involvement.
When king or emperor participates in the ceremony. King - Lay person (non-church person) Layman - non-professional. Church person - cleric.
1077 CE. Serious church leader, pope. Cleans up church corruption. Stop Lay investiture, stop bringing in non-qualified ppl. Excommunicates Henry IV.
King (emperor) warned by Pope Gregory to stop lay investiture, does not stop. Excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII. Kneels in snow for forgiveness from pope. Shows who has power.
d. 1189. King Henry II of England. Reforms law codes to get power back to king - common law, statute law. Church interferes. Puts friend in charge of church of England, archbishop of Canterbury. Inadvertently had friend/foe Becket murdered. Had to suffer penance. Power of church.
Friend of Henry II to be archbishop of England. Becket took job seriously, instead of Henry's pawn. Became bitter enemies. Made a saint, considered a martyr.
1090s. Western European Christians attack Islamic world (reclaim Jerusalem). Crusade - "War that would do God's war." Lead army to reclaim south for Christianity. Succeeded for brief time. Population increase-solution send sons on crusades.
NE France. Invaded England 1066.
Duke William of Normandy
1060s. Heard of King of England's death, wanted to be king. Invaded south England, defeats Harold, becomes King of England. Built castles, surveys land, commissions church. King of England and Duke of Normandy.
1087. Survey of England, a source for understanding this period.
Investigate a crime. Powerful neighbor dispute, go to gvt, panel a jury, gather evidence, accused. Summoned by sheriff, 12-15 ppl. Suggest an accused, indighted, sent to trial, by judges. Late 1200s (after Henry II)
Trial by Ordeal
Prove innocence by battling accusor or test (usually rediculous tests-results determined by God).
Late 1200s (after Henry II). Jury of peers - by status. Lords tried by lords.
d. 1216. Son of Henry II. Liar, cheat, bad king. Lousy warrior. Lost most of territory in France. Vassals rebelled, John lost. Barrons/vassals insisted John behave.
1215. "Great Charter" Kings can't do certain things. Ruler limited. Cannot go against custom or law. NOT above the law.
Late 1200s. Consultation becomes more formal. Free people (not serfs, not lords), townspeople, knights, vassals, church. Sheriffs hold elections to represent free ppls. Taxes. 1295 first meeting, House of Lords, House of Commons.
Middle class, not serfs, not vassals. Own property, run towns. Merchants, crafts ppl. Est. own gvt, council, committees. Mayor - leader of town council. Collect taxes, garbage collection, cops, operations. Elected.
Leaders in proffession. Specially trained. Protection, arrangements in dangerous world. Craft union, make sure always enough work, uses influence in city council. Limit competition. Economic interest. Control # of ppl in trade.
Training program thru the guild, proffessional, 5-7 years, from leader member-master. Exchange assistance for learning.
Sell your trade, wages for work, qualified. Justify monopoly-good training.
NE Italy. 1158 1st university established. Focused education, more detailed, and elaborate. Church and state required more knowledge, specialized training, became more necessary. Open to all, part of church. Church authority - monastary, univ. - independent
Bishop appoints head of university. Teachers-proffessional demand how univ. is run, share, dominate. Worried chancellor would appoint friends/family-unqualified.
Book of Kells
700s. Bible, new testament. Latin, illistrations, title pages, celtic art.
Irregular, no symetry. Different than classic. Built for protection.
Cathedral built 1100s-1200s. NW France. Ideal. Cruciform - cross shape, most important. Symbolism, Roman -arches, vaults, but pointed and uses flying butresses for support. Three windows - holy trinity, stain glass windows.
Want to see the other 36 Flashcards in Medieval Europe?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!