MEDIEVAL GOV?T CREATEDATE 4/8/09 11:27 PM Medieval Government Frederick II Comes to power 1215-1250 (Pope Innocent) Pledged to go on Crusade ?Stupor Mundi? He was a Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany, Burgundy, Sicily, Italy, Cyprus, and Jerusalem Grew up in Sicily, identified with a Mediterranean culture (Christian, Muslim, Jewish) People would question him because he was so familiar with Muslim 1225 Married Yolande of Brienne Goes on crusade forms a diplomatic alliance with Sultan of Egypt and gains a relationship with Jerusalem This pisses the Pope off because it made Frederick more powerful and well known. Stays as King of Jerusalem and King of Cyprus til 1230 then returns to Italy in order to put down an invasion on his lands 1250 Frederick II dies. He had given so much power to the princes that no one had the power to take the reins from him. Germany was a confederation of princes. This lasted for 600 years. Pope Gregory IX (1227?1241) Excommunicated Frederick numerous times from 1227 onward because he wouldn?t go on crusades Statue in favor of the Princes, 1231 See bottom Pope Innocent IV Naples Manfred Came out on top more than other rulers when Frederick II died, but the crown was given to the Pope Charles of Anjou, brother of Louis IX France ? took over Sicily in 1266 France holds Sicily for a period. Spain takes it by 1280-ish 711 ? Muslim Rule 11th Century - Reconquista attempts to take back Spain 13th Century ? combination of Christian, Jewish, and Muslim culture Cortes 1188 Spanish Cortes is a representative of assemblies (Govt) Typically a council where a King?s feudal vassals and prelates (bishops, archbishops) would meet to advise the King Different because representatives from the cities and different classes [not peasant] are invited to represent the wishes/grants of society Castile Codification of Spanish Law ? King Alfonso X (1252?84) Las Siete Partidas Combination of Roman Law with local Castillian customs Toledo Aragon Spent most of 13th century in becoming a Mediterranean sea power under James I (1213?1276) King John (1199?1216) Shrinking with royal power High taxes War w/Phillip Augustus Battle of Battle of Bouvines (1214) Phillip Augustus Prevailed Magna Carta (1215) No 1 person issued this A document that came out of a forced agreement from Barons of England and King John Lost Normandy and empire MAGNA CARTA Who?? 25 barons and King John What Kind?? Agreement (even though forced) Important?? Background w/loss of English land, barons had been rebelling for a while Why?? (Big picture) decline of feudalism, King?s Power is limited Why?? (Specific) CHURCH FEUDAL RELATION LAW John cant put England under interdict again Interdict was place bc John tried to appoint Archbishop of Canterbury Inheritance of land was by right (feudal society was becoming uncomfortable) Payment of debts Henry III (1216?1272) King John?s Son King of England Held Gascony for Louis IX as a vassal One of the causes of the 100 years war Edward I (1272?1307) Henry III?s Son Powerful English monarch emerges Went to war with Spanish, Welsh, Scots He was normally either at war or gaining back the rights of the king Barons pretty much had full jurisdiction of their lands Edward issues Quo warranto proceedings (=by what right) Sends officials to find a charter before 1189 for the barons to keep control, otherwise officials overtook the land Quia emptores and Statute of Mortmain (1279) Q.E. was a law that allowed people to buy and sell land It still belonged to the king but he didn?t act like it Removes the process of sub-infeudation Parliament Philip Augustus (1180 ?1223) Began to expand the Ile De France gaining Normandy and Maine Ile de France: Toulouse and Champagne Toulouse and Champagne ? very weak, change in royal power Louis VIII (1223?1226) Started to parcel out the newly acquired land to his sons (royal appanogeo). Very smart in the short term ? contributed to strength Louis IX (1226?1270) Gained from appanogeo, good ruler, even been called a saint Key changes in administration due to growing Ile de France Established Parlement Made it difficult for vassals to commit feudal warfare making France a safer place to live Philip III (1270?1285) Philip IV (1285?1314) Phillip the Fair Some really important changes in Govt Started to restructure Parlement into 3 different branches Chambre des plaids Branch for hearing and deciding all cases - pleas Chambre des requêts Branch for receiving complaints to decide if they should be heard Chambre des enquêtes Judicial investigations No longer a time when a King has absolute rule and power Society is changing ( urbanization leading to people being important Chambre des comptes Estates General - TEXTBOOK Mongols Genghis Khan (1206?1227) Representative Assemblies - Parliament 1188 ? Spanish Cortes 1302 ? Estates General 13th ? 1259 ? Edward I ? Parliament Statue in favor of the Princes, 1231 WHAT KIND OF DOCUMENT IS THIS? Royal Statute - law put in to effect by legislative govt WHO ISSUED IT? Frederick the II, give some background on him WHAT IS LARGER HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE? The larger historical picture is that Frederick the II needed to consolidate his power in Germany in the years 1215-1220 in order to keep the princes happy so he can focus his power in Italy. Officially give up legal jurisdiction to princes Decentralization of power SPECIFICALLY? Demonstrate how he keeps princes happy while focusing his power in Italy
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